my pham tenamyd canada where can i buy diltiazem in canada craigslist glasgow scotland hytrin canada no prescription buy reglan online coumadin shoppers drug mart aldactone women buy periactin from canada olanzapine over the counter canada plendil dosering moduretic dosage too high his and hers viagra how to import cafergot minocycline prescription online probalan birth control online canada legal buy minomycin online canada order fluconazol online uk anafranil online no prescription normal ambien dosage non prescription serevent pharmacy pilex medicine children allegra stratton age can i get protonix allegra prescriptions cheap otomax pills is it illegal to buy strattera discount maxaman of canada nizagara buy australia purchase minomycin on line in canada buy synthroid new zealand online aceon cheap price hydrochlorothiazide drug in canada pharmacy terramycin without a perscription edwin dewees teeth zithromax for sale philippines prednisolone pharmacychecker purchase stediril on line in canada where purchase zantac where can i get atorlip 10 pills clomid online no prescription usa buy olanzapine singapore somac better than pariet aldactone from india famvir without rx where can i buy alti doxycycline tablets order fluss 40 on line usa combivent tablets 150 mg too much nolvadex side effects long time side effects lopid buy albuterol online from australia methotrexate next day shipping cost of differin without insurance buy sarafem without rx fluticanose uses medication eltroxin for men sale in uk orlistar generic name cuanto sale lexapro etodolac birth control online mexico ordering aldactone here in canada buy brahmi online with mastercard other options besides viagra order prandin medication by mail overseas pharmacy no prescription thyrohormone best pharmacy to order avodart what is mevacor for capoten fast canada buy canada no prescription for lopid buy pamelor next day cheap sepibest buy betnovate online without a prescription order disulfiramo rx taking 40mg of levitra where to buy synthroid with mastercard cheap genuine cialis super active online where to buy cabaser with echeck buy accutane no prescription needed drugs where can i get amoxicilina from tadalis drug in fr pharmacy detrol prices usa buy ampicillin online reviews i pill tricor website medication cymbalta over the couter raciper generic uk buying voltaren propecia cost comparison pharmacy 1mg buyers of proventil canada nitroglycerin for sale online what is eurax for buy erexin v online no prescription united pharmacies uk legit comprar nimotop portugal donde comprar dutasteride what type of drug is dramamine pulmicort cheapest rate cabgolin lawsuit canada ponstel from canada with no prescription can you buy micronase where can i buy alesse tablets promethazine doctors online cialis jelly drug in canada pharmacy how much does valtrex cost at cvs buy allegra pills in the uk olmesartan dose equivalent triamterene for sale canada zyloprim pharmacy mail order where to get codeine promethazine cough syrup lipitor recall lot numbers for 2012 my xeloda coupons fucidin over the counter canada keppra 100 mg ml best place to buy flomax in usa alesse drug in germany pharmacy vagifem pas cher what doses does bystolic come in generic retin a gel 0,1 canada glucotrol birth control online uk renova in croatia where to buy mentat with echeck buy saw palmetto online overnight cipro to buy organic pharmacy brand cialis medication on line zoloft overdose how much ayurslim online store what is vytorin pills used for sominex us companies only can we trust nootropil online haldol 10 mg tabletten what is methotrexate used to treat bystolic 40mg online generic effexor xr discount cheap pills review use zertalin coupon online generic fluoxetine reviews where to buy fluconazole over the counter non prescription bupropion mobic perth australia avandamet daily use reviews erexin v order online better than viagra and testosterone alli in stock what is the medication hytrin used for where to buy anteovin mg oestrogel for sale australia can you order atacand metocarbamol online usa alli without subscription diclofenac sodium 50mg dosage gout viagra stores prilosec buy canada doxazosin without script malegra dxt for sale canada sumycin birth control online canada can i buy vermox online aricept 5 mg pill identification cost of mail plendil plavix 75mg clopidogrel obagi tretinoin cream 0.05 reviews cheapest plavix prednisone dose pack dosing instructions max daily dose of clonidine why has tretinoin 0,025 been discontinued buy minocin overseas propecia stores where do i singulair in mexico phenergan canadian pharmacy buy aciclovir have no prescription pulmicort price ireland ordering ampicilina buy cheap amitriptyline using pay pal buy cozaar with a mastercard prescription assistance for wellbutrin sr hytrin usa cvs prices buy zentel online safely buy endep capsules methotrexate online from usa tadalafil 20 mg dapoxetine 60mg products over counter retin a gel 0,1 cefixime discontinued viagra on line for sale no script acai sales growth non generic lanoxin what is the correct dosage of levaquin where to get pure calcium carbonate propecia medication zyloprim with paypal payment bupropionum australia price where can i get lexapro from cheap acai berry diet pills buy tretinoin 0 05 bulk best time to take clomid pct buy reminyl online express mail order levaflaxcin accutane overnight shipping cheap buy real viagra approved canadian dramamine mg canada safe to buy generic januvia from uk erythromycin dosage too high how to take vpxl generic entocort mylan maxalt birth control online australia ordering zydis uk 20mg accutane results buy stieva a tablets can i make xenical cost of yasmin pill in australia how to use nitroglycerin ointment can buy carvedilolo online quickest xenical ordering trandate amitriptyline online coupon code buy methotrexate pills in the uk buy proventil greece prednisolone tablets 5mg effects canadian pharmacy nizoral shampoo cytotec 50mg tablets ordering lexapro on line cozaar in the uk now forum ou acheter cialis en ligne ordering arava on line buy estradiol valerate online australia no prescription order roaccutane from india without prescription what does isoniazid mean buy norvasc online from australia rhinocort medication order fluoxetine mg tablet percocet 5 325 wikipedia obelit noprescrition needed usa online pharmacy triamterene sold over counter methotrexate pct buy dapoxetine and viagra is clavamox available over the counter zovirax birth control online australia orlistat uk availability viagra pay by paypal mobic tablet size suppliers of diovan in us sale female cialis generic actoplus met 15 mg 500 mg what is zerit for buy cozaar online from australia nolvadex 20 mg controindicazioni amantadine birth control online mexico dapoxetine hydrochloride australia order fincar online no prescription with a amex generic carvedilolo usa pharmacy mexican pharmacy no prescription citalopram cipro without insurance best place to buy dutasterid in canada where to buy cefixime drugs online what is phenamax made of prozac usage in america lasix iv push nursing manfaat voltaren salep probalan india pharmacy glucotrol xl reviews college of medicine and allied health sciences freetown i want to pay some viagra professional buy movalis in india online premarin sales 2010 testosterone therapy before and after buy synthroid australia zitromax trusted online drug stores in canada provera precio mexico generic capoten uk how to take metformin for diabetes ginseng results forum periostat user reviews canada drugs cialis super active with prescription cat thyroid medication side effects does accutane work for body acne online janumet purchase cheap compazine is urispas a prescription drug elimite tablets 40mg discount azurette of canada obelit without a prescription from mexico where do i dilantin in uk canadian pharmacy viagra plus buy avapro without a prescription from canadian pharmacy seizure medicine depakote what is the cost of januvia detrol next day delivery zoloft sertraline tablets side effects side effects of calan sr tablets adidas torsion allegra black minocin next day elimite discount voucher canadian pharmacy robaxin luvox wanted online review cheap penegra no prescription how much does alesse birth control cost frumil from usa pharmacy zebeta 100 cilest purchase lopressor discount buy alli online singapore amitriptyline mg mexico certified online canadian pharmacies over the counter medicine pravachol does cipro come in capsules buy zithromax low cheap price best place to buy cefadroxil is mail order zyvox safe where to buy aspirin cardio generic hydrochlorothiazide paypal alti doxycycline cost in canada medicines baclofen oral is minomycin available on line in canada yasmin antibabypille online bestellen primatene mist inhaler replacement forzest looking for purchase ephedraxin on line in mexico topical nifedipine breastfeeding decadron india pharmacy purchase cardura on line in india suhagra 100mg cheap voltaren price comparison common side effects of hydrea sundown naturals acai 1000 mg dietary supplement softgels best site for erection packs 1 baclofen alcoholism forum side effects of plendil er there generic ventolin hfa cephalexin over the counter uk where to buy tegretol with echeck can you order claritin d online drugstore buy diflucan australia generic synthroid vs name brand dilantin india pharmacy buy isotretin pills in the australia dramamine trusted online drug stores in canada female cialis over the counter canada suprax without prescription miami indian pharmacy renagel amlodipin buy uk retin a 0 025 dosage instructions c ratioph delivery uk levitra plus suppliers overseas zyrtec for children dosage risperdal medication class sliding scale insulin protocol uk alli online ireland comprar apo furosemida portugal evista supplier in uk order metformin online no prescription with a mastercard how much is fml forte tablets clomid noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy clomid australia buy buy hong kong cod entocort online order cytotec from india without prescription purim online canada fast delivery vermox canadian online overnight pharmacy order cialis professional medication by mail online shuddha guggulu india accutane side effects long term men pyridium pills online in the usa metoprolol tartrate beta blocker buy trazodone online uk is vagifem a prescription drug moduretic generic australia buy aspirin mg online can buy acai berry canada kamagra oral jelly with no subscription what is the medicine meclizine used for what is estradiol valerate tablets zebeta pct buy isoniazid from usa pharmacy comprar erection packs 2 en argentina clonidine hcl drug class levaquin drugstore.com drugs on line parlodel generic 2013 drugs is it safe to order tadalis sx buy salbutamol online in the united states without a prescription disgrasil lafrancol precio eltroxin medication side effects purchasing prednisona online uk tegretol without a prescription from uk buy betapace 100mg online prevacid roche precio argentina 100 mg aspirin buy zenegra tablets india discount azurette from usa where to buy micronase drugs online descargar pack de dragon ball z para pivot xenical for sale ireland online pharmacy uk minocycline percocet pills buy online nombre de pastillas similares al viagra discount caprysin mg ditropan 5 mg tabletki cialis professional brand order where to buy nizagara with amex flovent prescription coupons alphagan generic mexican pharmacy no prescription ralista cialis sublingual australia price tinidazole coupon code lopressor drugs online purchases billig desyrel online kaufen salbutamol buy without buy premarin uk american exelon low dose accutane for rosacea thyrox non perscription countries buy azulfidine with paypal valsartan hct 80 mg doksazosin lek fast uk pharmacy that sells diltiazem baclofen drugs addiction artane birth control online australia endep consumer medicine information can i buy zestoretic in canada digoxin medicine online amoxil ships from india buy generic diamox online no prescription levitra for discount when to expect a positive pregnancy test calculator how long does phenergan drowsiness last where to buy speman with echeck purchase glucotrol on line in mexico can i order orlistat online pharmacy buy drugs leukeran decadron on line indian generics online levitra plus zofran no prescription needed buy danazol no prescription prednisolone side effects eyes intralesional triamcinolone injection valtrex cheap no prescription brand name calcium carbonate online levoxyl discount no prescription renova online how to take paxil mg can trileptal cause weight gain buy flomax without rx what are the side effects of ciproflox low cost overnight requip chloramphenicol capsules dosage order zovirax without rx buy colchicina without rx how to buy prednisone dog antibiotics online canada tetracycline 500 mg for acne is sustiva a prescription drug frumil no prescription overnight delivery tinidazole buy uk comprar c ratioph en argentina provera canadian online overnight pharmacy buy grifulvin v boots pharmacy viagra soft pills online in the india what is cefadroxil prescribed for cardizem cheap india pharmacy brafix online purchase celebrex echeck where can i get orlistar pills actonel mg price kamagra now co uk kamagra oral jelly risperdal on line in the usa biaxin online from usa where to buy lynoral safe diovan no prescription good quality generic viagra where purchase kelnor buy triamterene boots india pharmacies online that sell actoplus met how many dramamine does it take to trip can i get tegretol can i buy narcotics online isoniazid 20 mg lamisil on line in the mexico how to get nexium in australia fluconazol dosage too high altace from usa vistaril with no perscription avalide drugstore com how to by propranolol online aricept canadian pharmacy indian drama adalat online buy leukeran online reviews haldol tablets uk ordering duetact on line phone in order for periactin what is doxycycline mono used for does valtrex have a shelf life discount liv 52 erection packs 2 daily use reviews norvasc prices usa flagyl overdose in dogs lipothin in the uk amlodipinbesilat side effects uk what works better than allegra buy bystolic online overnight delivery can you get inderal over the counter generic propranolol canada betoptic lawsuit canada canadian pharmacy drugstore buy online himplasia generic what is lisinopril tablets etodolac drug abuse percocet cheap canada pharmacy what is the best ed drug donde puedo comprar viagra plus motrin order aygestin online pharmacy shipped to canada cost of prevacid over the counter torsemide in canada best price for real menosan meclizine user reviews order raciper uk pharmacy is protonix generic for nexium lov cost singulair comprar suhagra online erectile dysfunction drugs in india india tofranil price how to by flagyl er online can i order oestrogel online retin a delivery uk buy cozaar cheap online pharmacy no prescription needed lasix buying zolpidem in mexico name viagra women india bactroban pret amoxiline order in the us zanaflex abuse drug buy herbal viagra in ireland comprar detrol original en madrid tetracycline 500mg price safe biaxin no prescription finax brands india toprol xl online purchase albuterol on line in the mexico viagra on sale online lasix use in horses purchase bisoprololi fumaras in australia generic diprolene buy canada list of tesco stores selling beconase aq buy tadalis sx tablets canada vytorin class action lawsuit premarin canada cefadroxil tablets ip odoxil canadian imdur tablet buy asacol in australia canadian pharmacies online ratings prevacid rx order unisom online no prescription with a amex thyroxine online no prescription buy cozaar 20 do i need a prescription for colchicine amlodipin usa pharmacy irbesartan side effects long term hoodia pills walgreens discount arjuna mg ovulation after serophene buy aceon 200 zoloft side effects in women pilex pills online in the uk non prescription cilest phenergan prescription amitriptyline no prescription canada where can i purchase rythmol sr plendil pills buy online lasix drug in mexico pharmacy misoprost online purchase biaxin where can i buy zantac generic side effects canadian pharmacy without rx dove comprare propecia generico buy ephedraxin 50 retin a drug class lamisil 40 mg dose ampicillin on line in the canada most reliable place to buy diflucan online levitra dosage too high ponstel patient reviews doxazosin 20 mg brand name pletal online retin a 0,025 usa pharmacy buy imodium chewable lamictal canada no prescription buy doksazosin lek online from mexico hydrea order can you take erexor daily buy triamterene online no prescription can you buy aleve in ireland prescription differin buy purchasing ranitidine online uk what does diovan look like best place to buy bupron sr in australia robaxin overdose side effects where do i metronidazol in uk lipothin cost comparison non prescription tadacip pharmacy motrin fast india leukeran drug in canada pharmacy ordering lasilix purchasing duetact online buy brand serpina generic inderal buy canada donde comprar proventil en colombia pyridium dosage buy cymbalta canada zentel brands india seroquel capsules can you get ephedraxin rogaine 5 generico online buy tindamax pills in the australia omnicef for sale usa retino a cream 0,05 no prescription compare prices minocycline drug classification buy vagifem pills in the india where are the visceral and parietal pleura continuous generic clomid for sale on line buy diflucan online free shipping acheter colchicine en ligne buy crystal aspirin canada tenormin australia price confido barato mentat with paypal payment buy mobic 40 warafin buy australia can you use voltaren gel for back pain chlamydia screening programme doxycycline birth control online mexico buy lotrel lowest price pulmicort women buy mexican pharmacy no prescription calcium carbonate tizanidina birth control online mexico cefixime for sale australia beconase aq with american express order buy online cheap diovan where to viagra in chennai diploma in pharmacy online india what is tetracycline for where do i albenda in mexico mexican pharmacy no prescription levaquin fast florinef delivery buy antara perth australia where to buy diprolene mg comprar levlen online simvastatina non perscription countries mumbai india online pharmacy precipitated calcium carbonate manufacturers in india order generic cafergot solu medrol 125 mg price buy aprovel mg online for diltiazem hydrochloride 2 roaccutane mg tablet best place buy bentyl pct erythromycin coupon code ordering serevent over the counter decadron cheap cleocin no prescription voveran sr tablets 40mg trazodone 50 mg tablet side effects buying emoquette buy feldene no prescription where to buy brand amoxil online mexico reviews on cephalexin erythromycin ophthalmic ointment usp sterile used for what order permethrinum online ordering provera on line acai berry juice costco canada sale rx order tenormin levitra no prescription delivery ordering leukeran india cafergot generico italiano what is mobic medicine used for lasix from china buy flagyl er online without prescription innopran xl billig kaufen compare prices terramycin where can i buy permethrin predalone to buy in england best viagra generic review amaryl fda approved to buy without prescription buy zyprexa 5 kamagra uk paypal accept antara online from uk best place to buy ventolin in india safe to buy generic compazine from usa buy beconase aq with e check online no prescription uk for dostinex terramycin coupons cardura side effects hypertension buying cephalexin from canada no prescription cheap genuine bupron online cymbalta cheap online zoloft vs generic side effects aricept order canada where to buy levitra online no prescription guaranteed l tryptophan supplements australia prednisone dose for hives purchase sepibest on line in usa prescription drug orlistat seroquel 300 mg for sleep feldene without a prescription from us buy sepibest inhaler canada suppliers of skelaxin in us buy femcare with mastercard is it legal to buy baclofen online pharmaceutical companies jobs voltaren emulgel shoppers drug mart free viagra samples coupon lowest price ditropan order clomifene from india without prescription buy zyprexa online without a prescription generic depakine chrono for sale on line uroxatral tablets 10mg online synthroid purchase furosemide buy australia buy nolvadex pills in the australia buy atarax tablets india order drugs from canada shuddha guggulu drug class online v gel overnight delivery where purchase furosemide american flunil buy salbumol canada can buy zyban online metronidazol uses medication can you get delta cortef alavert with paypal payment buy paroxetine online no prescription us prometrium online usa best site to buy abana buy brand penegra cheap hyaluronic acid 100 mg where to get nolvadex pills brand name procardia online where to buy tinidozole can i order silagra no prescription in the usa propecia indian pharmacy india buy altace online canadian pharmacy ciplox is there a shortage of carbozyne abilify woldwide shipping ciprofloxacina cost in canada best place to buy lozol in canada best skelaxin prices india pharmacies online that sell allegra online overseas pharmacy no prescription what drug category is revatio levitra viagra vs rosuvastatin cheap uk prescription drug levitra safe place order bupron drug market order betoptic buy asacol from india buy slimex astrailia where to buy flucazole online canada what are the side effects of too high dose of synthroid buy lasilix online amazon clincin online in uk buy decadron mexican pharmacies astelin women buy indomethacin 50mg dosage buy erection packs 2 online with out prescription serevent from usa pharmacy where to buy depakine chrono with echeck protonix india no prescription buy isoptin capsules where purchase retin a 0,05 zyprexa ukraine order abana 1 quality pharmacy side effects of buspar 5 mg kamagra for sale in glasgow i pill rumalaya liniment website ginette 35 dose pack no prescription research chemicals usa supplier zocor medication interactions emsam patch india levitra canada pharmacy online discount cialis 5 mg discount buy alphagan generic stieva a prices at costco buy online lansoprazol generic tamoxifen 20 mg price reminyl without script azitromicina delivery london mylan amlodipine besylate over the counter drugs similar to compazine nizagara ships from india safe to buy generic plavix from usa generic disulfiramo usa buy generic lopid with bonus where can i buy kamagra oral jelly mg customer reviews on allied van lines generic retin a gel 0,1 india generic eulexin usa pharmacy delta cortef online pay paypal doksazosin lek mg mexico sibutramine daily dose buy ponstel online with out prescription toradol buy mexico rosuvastatin direct pharmacy buy chloromycetin quality drugs zanaflex pills online in the australia zetia vytorin lawsuit proscar medication class aldactone barato what drug category is renova meloxicam enolat without a prescription from uk generic medrol uk paypal evista buy canada lasix medicinenet claravis over the counter drugs how to get anacin in australia generic for biaxin xl riperdal max dose non prescription aciclovir pharmacy how to purchase requip discount code for tadacip i need viagra today hydrodiuril without subscription canadian allies ww1 acquistare lioresal in italia cipla pharma nolvadex to buy from europe buy cardizem online uk no prescription buy retina online no prescription cheap us buy aceon how old do i have to be to buy benadryl ventolin dosage in infants elocon not generic what is finpecia mg used to treat 4 pink pills for chlamydia side effects best place to buy hydrochlorothiazide in india indian generics online acivir pills cabaser online canadian brafix next day delivery drug lipitor medication glimepiride missed dose purchase evista 60mg pulmicort over the counter canada quiero comprar allegra baclofen in the uk now licensed pharmacy cialis soft buy cilest mexican pharmacies order misoprost no rx canadian pharmacy nootropil pharmacy order what does generic paxil look like buy naprosyn online no prescription usa the chepest atacand discount lexapro from usa buy motilium online from usa seroflo pills online in the mexico lotensin prescription only cialis in the uk now prednisona without prescription medication can i make pyridium what is aldactone spironolactone claravis vs accutane price zyvox to buy avalide patient reviews buy celapram new zealand online how much will aricept cost purchase fluconazol in usa elocon online canada what was viagra originally developed for buy online no prescription cheap abilify side effects of dilantin withdrawal l thyroxine pills online in the canada how to get minomycin in australia roxithromycin no prescription overnight delivery meclizine side effects 25mg online vasotec purchase buy trazodone with no prescription flunil generic mexico citalopram hbr 20 mg tab is generic hydrea effective purchase decadron on line in the uk best place to buy celadrin without a prescription viagra red carvedilolo drug canadian pharmacy flexisyn canada pharmacy order actonel online without rx buy azitromicina boots zenegra shop net can i buy viagra online with paypal dulcolax medicine online alphagan prescriptions buy brimonidine ophthalmic buy voveran from mexico online methotrexate where to get metformin by mail buy haridra mg cleocin gel discount medications bisoprololi fumaras sold over counter cheapest erexor dapoxetine purchase cheap toprol xl 40 mg can you buy provera over the counter what does zoloft treat maximum dose of zantac in pregnancy olanzapine uk brand name buy terramycin online from mexico online pharmacies canada cialis voltaren uk companies only effexor xr for dogs buy generic benadryl usa order danazol online no prescription with a visa generic for pravachol celebrex generic when available in us online pharmacy toprol xl achat de viagra au where purchase acticin purchase cipro in australia safe to buy generic nexium from canada buy prandin online without prescription brahmi amla oil reviews cheap nursing shoes cheap colchicine delivered overnight pills for sale generic lasix levothyroxine sodium tablets side effects medazole medicine children uk pharmacies online that sell hytrin nizagara pills drugstore walmart propecia price what is women take viagra viagra 10 mg dose can diovan hct get you high how long does it take for coreg cr to work hoodia side effects long term use cheapest erection packs 2 paypal genuine asacol best price carbozyne uses medication can buy motrin online brand advair diskus uk buy diamox drugstore com mg tretinoin 0,05 uk pharmacy what is sildenafila tablets buy cheap evista using pay pal cheap septilin pills buy vpxl in australia flomax fast mexico prednisolone mail order india drug stores in canada online buy norvasc online australia no prescription thyroxine noprescrition needed usa online pharmacy buy generic feldene online no prescription etodolac in the uk now best place to buy viagra professional without a prescription order astelin online ondansetrona mg india buy meloxicam enolat online usa prescription drug stromectol brand thyrox buy compare dosage cialis viagra generic for voltaren buy fasigyne bulk hytrin side effects tinnitus voveran 100 sr dosage pharmacies amoxil prescription antibiotics cheap diclofenac 50mg usa buy kamagra oral jelly fml forte online pay paypal propecia pharmacy online canadian pharmacy tizanidinum aciclovir shoppers drug mart best price for real thyroxine where to buy propranolol with mastercard nootropil fiale costo obelit drugstore com pricing legal online zofran buy pulmicort visa effects remeron soltab orally disintegrating tablets thyrohormone fda approved to buy without prescription suppliers of unisom in us buy bystolic online no prescription usa purchase cilest in canada craigslist northern virginia usa buying lady era zentel to buy in the uk without a prescription where to buy diarex ointment diamox tablets for purchase where can i get some clonidine price of coumadin in canada dipyridamole canada head office geriforte medication stediril pills online in the mexico ortho cyclen online mexico safe buy clomifene online tricare pharmacy program express scripts com how hoodia have been developed as medicines cheap paroxetine india cleocin shopping ramipril overdose treatment naprosyn dose pediatric buy actoplus met quick how much will zocor cost dutas australia pharmacy safe olanzapine no precription research grade celebrex alli and diabetes medications lioresal generic equivalent female cialis without a perscription order aciclovir online no prescription with a amex imdur tablets 60mg bactrim cost in canada where can i buy permethrin surface spray what other drug is like cymbalta generic hydrea piracetam buy us buy sinequan generic generic asacol us leukeran non perscription countries alesse birth control effectiveness carafate drugs for sale serevent pills online in the canada arimidex to buy in australia cymbalta dosage depression ephedraxin canadian online where to purchase fluoxetina cheap ceftin online without prescriptions crestor vs zocor reviews cabgolin online legally buy antivert online usa meclizine over counter vs prescription what is the medicine cardizem used for vet meds finasteride keftab canadian pharmacy combivent online overnight shipping buy silagra online with out prescription how to buy duetact in canada prescription drug pariet voveran sr overnight shipping usa over nite viagra fasting ethionamide delivery uk order mevacor on line mexico arimidex tablets side effects order fincar online no presctiption lopid online australia lotrisone buy online us how to buy pulmicort in london buy l thyroxine boots pharmacy generic minomycin uk rumalaya buy on line safe buy liv 52 online what is atarax syrup for children cheap generic aldactone without max dose amoxil children lasix maximum dosage indian pharmacy ralista chloroquine tablets for purchase cafergot medication used c ratioph no script trazodone uk kamagra without script ampicillin online in usa abilify pills fake side effects potential viagra female viagra pharmacy billig cordarone online kaufen cost of himcolin without insurance seroxat withdrawal how long buy generic atomoxetin online with prescription albuterol no prescription fedex ups voltaren cream pregnancy celebrex pills pictures cheap trental 100mg arjuna order online prevacid reviews acid reflux can you buy lamisil canadian pharmacy omnicef canada pharmacy feldene online pharmacies with out prescription bupropion sr and discount elocon fast india female viagra fda approved to buy without prescription detrol buy australia astelin prices india pharmacies online that sell carafate order estrace uk pharmacy over counter medicine coumadin brahmi without prescription miami water pills side effects kidney metocarbamol online forum female cialis side effects uk buy cheap abilify pills imuran mail order india stieva a 0.01 review diflucan without a prescription from australia will i gain weight going off wellbutrin flexeril highest dosage buy cheap amaryllis flucazole daily use reviews augmentin quando si usa domperidone pregnancy first trimester over the counter asthma inhalers canada permethrin spray boots i want to pay some cabgolin where to buy dapoxetine with mastercard tetracycline discount code mentax over the counter uk nizoral in croatia where can i get some paxil purchase alesse online brahmi for men in usa proventil nebulizer dosage viagra over the couter order paxil on line mexico wellbutrin xl prices sertralina drug schedule order serophene from canada without prescription lantus mexico cilest next day thyroxin online from india minocin to buy in england order lady era how to take bupropion to stop smoking buy nolvadex 80 mg online generic drug for wellbutrin sr actos or generic metronidazole weight gain viagra pills cheapest pittsburgh sinemet medication isotretin from usa no script vpxl mg brand levitra without a script remeron online mexico order prednisolone canada buy genuine prilosec uk brand name chloromycetin online us online pharmacy no prescription accuran how to purchase metoclopramide online diclofenac medication overnight delivery permethrinum uk companies only allopurinol and azathioprine comprar rocaltrol original levitra soft no prescription buy generic valtrex cheap discount aprovel from canada biaxin back order where to buy cialis online paypal roaccutan legal in england salbumol from india effexor xr with no perscription average cost of differin necesito comprar cytotec en costa rica actos dosage recommendations buy betamethasone cream 0.05 uk buy danazol online with out prescription lamictal tablets online what is vasodilan pills used for fincar mg india periostat price 20 mg diclofenac gel usa sale side effects of thalidomide treating myeloma caffeine ergotamine buy mexico fastest betapace uk delivery citalopram online meds buy viagra jelly pills what is bupron mg used to treat what is keflex 500mg erythromycin generic cheap costs what types of accutane are there side effects of fertomid 25mg dipyridamole tablets on line to buy purchase leukeran actoplus delivery london kamagra no prescription canada nitrofurantoin no perscription fasigyn without a prescription from australia buy alphagan online pharmacy cialis vs viagra dosage cytotec pharmacy prices list prednisone pregnancy third trimester aloprim for dogs buy canadian pharmacies that sell viagra buy extendaquin lowest price levothroid dosage information half price tizanidina generic viagra fruit soft tabs sildenafil 100mg epivir hbv shopping original ivenox online mail order zithromax online best price for periactin depakote ec 250 mg tablet can i order amitriptyline online actos comunicativos wikipedia where can i buy levothroid zestoretic without a prescription from mexico diclofenac gel online pharmacy shipped to canada promethazine hydrochloride dosage seroquel sale online hyzaar on line in the usa cheap amoxil 500mg side effects of arava zertalin for sale philippines canada pharmacies online that sell quetiapinum buy toradol pills in the us amoxil drug oversea colchicine canada no prescription elavil 10 mg effets secondaires can i make albendazole suhagra now co uk discover egypt viking princess diamox pills online in the australia buy avodart online no prescription risperdal consta generic name generic yagara buy canada purchase actos medication online canadian pharmacy how much does cephalexin 500mg cost cheap amlodipinbesilat uk legal buy venlafaxina online canada naprosyn sale prednisolona tablets side effects serevent asthma medication is there a generic for valtrex yet glucophage prices usa quetiapinum noprescrition needed uk online pharmacy minocycline generic australia ginette 35 on line in the india buy prednisolone inhaler canada yasmin manufacturer coupons innopran xl tablets uses nitroglycerin prices malegra dxt side effects uk buy generic viagra from canada online brand name mentat online viagra natural para mujeres renagel shoppers drug mart triamterenum birth control online mexico hydrochlorothiazide india pharmacy bupropion 150 mg prices diclofenac noprescrition needed usa online pharmacy to buy flovent in uk zyvox lawsuits pfizer viagra side effects medicaments unisom sleeptabs coupons get zydis las vegas tylenol ibuprofen pregnancy canadian mail order meds coumadin diet can i make zantac beat way to order estrace allopurinol prescription cost discount sumycin buy usa voltaren 50 tablets side effects misoprost to buy in the usa without a prescription buy diclofenac australia is shuddha guggulu a prescription drug effexor xr for purchase without a prescription generic lipitor names lozol cost comparison aripiprazola buy india tretinoin drug in fr pharmacy generic for requip what is canadian health care like lamisil pills price the chepest vermox famvir 250 mg tablets get feldene toronto ephedraxin for men sale in uk getting lamisil in australia canada order cozaar rizatriptan migraine levitra professional pills online in the australia order antivert online uk buy lantus online with no prescription zestoretic 10 12.5 mg elocom noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy saroten tabs 50 mg wirkung lincocin dosage for cats diflucan drugs interact redustat 120 side effects order clavamox from canada without prescription aygestin from usa get etodolac las vegas suhagra 100 tabletten retin a 0,025 for purchase without a prescription comprar flagyl er original dyazide daily use reviews leukeran medicine children renagel noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy ortho cyclen canadian online buy c ratioph australia renagel reviews naprosyn dosage for back pain how long does it take for bactrim to work for acne can you buy zentel online atlantic drugs viagra 2 pharmacy buy drugs effexor xr isoptin 40 mg posologia generic nitroglycerin usa pharmacy promethazine hydrochloride max dose bactrim generic canada purchase toprol in mexico where to amitriptyline cheap order how long does levitra last uk safe place order indinavir better than extendaquin buy serevent mexican pharmacies reviews of stieva a tretinoin gel a good web page to buy vermox with no script beta val phone orders acquistare isoptin in italia comprar viagra original pfizer cleocin without prescription medication to buy vardenafilum finpecia delivery uk no prescription mestinon sale buy clomiphene online safe methotrexate on the internet purchase lantus insulin accutane long term side effects joint pain order carbozyne buy micronase online from canada celebrex lawsuit side effects levaquin lawsuit class action isoniazid to buy in england amantadine birth control online india buy curacne online from usa buyers of lipitor canada buy online brand viagra generic is anastrozole a good pct what is the dosage for a medrol dose pack orlistat capsules manufacturers india ceftin delivery london torsemide low dose birth control aldactone without a prescription overnight viagra plus buy over the counter rosuvastatin online suhagra online india canada buy hoodia without prescription cialis super active cheap mexico pharmacy fluoxetine 20 mg cap not retin a buy mexico clomid without a prescription from uk how to buy disulfiramum united pharmacies co uk imovane best site get atacand geriforte syrup uk next day delivery lopressor order online female viagra visa buy bystolic online canada safe to buy generic detrol from uk article on malegra dxt indian generics online cordarone mirapex rxlist generic for levaquin medicine buy nexium pills in the mexico canadian drug company reglan florida avodart acivir pills online pharmacy uk half price caffeine ergotamine buy cefadroxil canada do you need to see a dr. to get viagra how can i get off prevacid flomax generic price best place to buy misoprost in uk flovent inhaler 110 mcg liposafe discount no prescription rumalaya liniment side effects long term use levitra professional no prescription canadian online drug where do i baclofen in canada over counter acticin order tamsulozin uk pharmacy estro express canada order generic seasonique triamterene hydrochlorothiazide 75 50 grifulvin v from mexico ventolin syrup for adults online generic lanoxin femara buy india xenical pills online in the canada buy generic lynoral online can buy prilosec canada lasix online usa no prescription abilify online usa no prescription flagyl and pregnancy category seroquel 300 mg tablets buy medazole online from canada actos pioglitazone generic orlistatum for sale philippines ventolin coupon special offers generic cleocin t gel buy raciper inhaler canada buy azitromicina pills in the australia how to use zovirax cold sore cream avalide fast uk my lantus coupons female cialis with american express buy retin a cream 0.05 estradiol valerate on line in the mexico where to buy prozac with mastercard procardia from australia where can i get flucazole pills levothyroid medicine children tenormin online in canada buy zedd online no prescription canada can i make combivent minocin discount no prescription dosage of methotrexate for cancer order isotretin on line mexico canada pharmacy without prescription can you buy zestril drug lisinopril purchase ephedraxin online zetia online australia vpxl buy australia where to buy levothyroid with echeck where to buy hydrochlorothiazide mg can you buy stuff with paypal without a bank account buy colospa tablets mexico eltroxin billig kaufen prescription citalopram ezetimibe 10 mg trial erection packs 1 medication alli weight loss pill wikipedia purchase luvox mg sildenafil citrate from india what pain reliever does not contain aspirin wie sieht original viagra aus order allegra uk pharmacy buy canada no prescription for nymphomax buy cheap deltasone pills best place buy risperdal pct cranberry capsules and coumadin curacne over the counter usa fml forte uk brand name lexapro shop net buy cialis online mastercard buy alphagan online uk brimonidine does prednisone have a shelf life naprosyn birth control online india buy remeron online australia no prescription atorlip 10 with no perscription cheap canadian acticin no prescription get diflucan online drug baridium to buy in the usa without a prescription prometrium woldwide shipping apo esomeprazole and alcohol difference pharmacy drugstore zithromax without prescription canada where to buy requip fluoxetine buy uk buy kamagra 100mg wholesale prescription purchase colchicine cheap generic etodolac usa bisoprololi fumaras medication on line where do i renova in usa cleocin australia companies only alavert mail order india vytorin sold over counter liv 52 buy australia buy generic naprosyn buy aciphex without a script allopurinol tablets buy cardura 20 where can i buy levoxyl tablets arjuna india companies only brand cialis for purchase crestor drugs online buy tretinoin 0,025 capsules neurontin cheapest rate strattera side effects uk order generic malegra fxt buy alli slimming tablets buy canada no prescription for imuran cost of erythromycin gel levitra vs cialis comparison is xanax legal in canada misoprostol and future pregnancy buy toprol canada order fluss 40 on line mexico buy ditropan in singapore buy generic actoplus online with prescription para que se usa ciprofloxacina diovan buy on line order wellbutrin online no prescription with a visa what does prandin salep elocon untuk ibu hamil where do i cabgolin in australia ondansetrona drug in fr pharmacy clozaril online abdominal pain after ovulation clomid dyazide from canada without rx ventolin 100 inhaler cfc free unisom brands india buying kamagra gold in manchester ampicilina in croatia buy viagra professional pills in the us canadian drug company roaccutan viagra plus canada online no prescription cheap viagra plus free delivery buspar online cheap where to buy parlodel online uk generic arava in usa cialis sublingual online coupon code london drugs canada electronics abilify dose for bipolar depression tenormin birth control online uk serevent fast uk safe place order venlafaxina indian generics online avodart buy tizanidinum tablets india order phenergan online uk where can i get some stromectol generic geriforte syrup united states apo clopidogrel prices cvs snovitra super power online australia buy orlistatum boots pharmacy meloxicam enolat trusted online drug stores in canada ordering coumadin uk cheap generic celebrex prescription viagra no prescription super active plus buy levitra online diovan dosage high blood pressure liquid pharmacy in los algodones olanzapine express canada half price metoclopramide what is promethazine hcl injection how to purchase acai online alli over the counter weight loss pill fda purchase of cialis with master card is there a drug comparative to lipothin doxycycline drugs serophene thailand combivent cost purchase confido in uk propecia finasteride side effects cephalexin capsules ip 500mg uses septilin canadian pharmacy generic pills for glucotrol ordering low dose moduretic ponstel discount card order erythromycin 500mg comprar evecare original metronidazole online with out prescription clomid success stories side effects order viagra by phone approved exelon coal sale get toradol las vegas safe place order orlistat discount anafranil otc serpina online uk maxaman mexico no prescription omnicef daily use reviews what is xenical drugs buy motilium with e check flagyl syrup for babies human pain meds for dogs minomycin mg canada order cardura 8 mg plavix drug wiki order cafergot on line usa best place to buy brand amoxil in india buy viagra professional in singapore cheap atarax sale uk elocom pct buy altace 20mg tab when did a generic for nexium become available where could i buy viagra without prescription coolock artane credit union alli results forum can you order alavert pharmacy buy fasigyne mg online erythromycin dosage uk dostinex australia price depression anxiety medication uk tretinoin cream .05 reviews acne mometasone furoate ointment usp used cardizem women buy online accutane starting canadian pharmacy is it safe to buy pills from canada buy retin a 0,025 cheap discount yaz otc frumil generic buy lincocin online express mail buy brand viagra uk mastercard purchase metformin er ordering cozaar on line sildenafila online pay paypal best pharmacy to order diabecon buy brand cialis india eurax results forum mentat mexico no prescription betoptic weight gain buying femara from canada hyzaar roche precio argentina is cabgolin a prescription drug buying apo furosemida in manchester ambien walrus urban dictionary cheapest place to buy prednisolone trazodone pill shortage generic for avapro medicine cheap cordarone free delivery tegretol generic canada buy amlodipin without rx l thyroxine pills online in the usa meclizine over counter vertigo toprol medication on line topamax weight loss drug combo pilule bleue viagra noroxin tablets used for buy albenza capsules order buy online amitriptyline without us online viagra pharmacy what is ciprofloxacin and tinidazole alavert sublingual dosage best prescription medicine for nausea amlodipin express canada buy generic torsemide online no prescription imodium a d liquid for use in children brand ceftin for sale levoxyl online pharmacies with out prescription buy danazol perth australia order wellbutrin sr pill free prevacid coupons buy nizoral in australia serophene buy india metoclopramide 10 mg during pregnancy buying zanaflex using paypal how to buy oratane online kako prepoznati original cialis best online pharmacy generic evista celexa from canadian pharmacy terramycin ointment for cats eyes ponstel no prescription canada silagra tablets online rogaine 2 pills online in the canada noroxin us companies only donde puedo comprar triamterene prednisona posologia sinusite cephalexin mexico no prescription very cheap allopurinol buy azitromicina online in the united states without a prescription buy ciplox with a mastercard buy generic wellbutrin sr online para que se usa el anafranil cheapest nymphomax saw palmetto over the counter drug what is kamagra chewable bentyl for men sale in uk purchase requip in canada ciprofloksacin generic usa buy benicar hct generic anafranil without a script is there a shortage of prednisone viagra 100mg filmtabletten preisvergleich blood pressure medication micardis side effects comprar zyrtec original isoniazid prices uroxatral generic drug better than augmentin
Tuesday October 21 , 2014
Font Size
   

Ancient and Modern Roots of Drama Therapy

Share

INTRODUCTION:

The word drama comes from ancient Greek and means quite literally “things done” (Harrison, 1913). Drama therapy is, in simplest terms, the use of action techniques, particularly role play, drama games, improvisation, puppetry, masks, and theatrical performance, in the service of behavior change and personal growth. It has its roots in religion, theatre, education, social action, and mental health/therapy. The National Association for Drama Therapy, created for promoting the field of drama therapy in the United States, was organized recently in 1979, as were many of the other creative arts therapy organizations, but drama therapy has been around much longer than that!

ANCIENT ROOTS: RELIGION AND THEATRE:

Evidence in archeological records suggests that early humans began to make art – paintings, sculpture, music, dance, and drama – during the Upper Paleolithic period about 45,000-35,000 years ago. Experts marvel at the suddenness with which the arts burst onto the human scene and tie it to the beginnings of symbolic, metaphoric thought (Pfeiffer, 1982; Mithen, 1996; Lewis-Williams, 2002). Simultaneous with this creative explosion, shamans and priests began utilizing the arts in their healing and religious practices. The origins of the arts and religion seem to be intertwined because the arts naturally provided effective symbolic ways to express abstract religious ideas. Dance and drama, in particular, were extremely useful in rites to create sympathetic and contagious magic as well as to embody myths and rituals. Details about these ancient origins are sketchy, but many scholars have hypothesized about those origins, based on surviving cave paintings, artifacts, myths, and even on extrapolating from contemporary shamanistic practices (Pfeiffer, 1982; Lewis-Williams, 2002). Greek scholar and cultural anthropologist Jane Ellen Harrison, for instance, theorizes that early art developed directly out of ritual from mimesis or imitation of an experience and became an abstract representation or metaphor which was then available for magical use (Harrison, 1913). However, without a written record providing direct testimony, we cannot know exactly what those ancient practices entailed and how those ancient humans understood their ceremonies.

Eventually, the art form of theatre developed out of religious rites and rituals. Western theatre history usually begins its formal accounts with ancient Greek theatre. Religious festivals dedicated to Dionysus, god of fertility and revelry, featured theatrical competitions in which plays brought mythology to life for the community. The Great Dionysia, held in Athens in early spring, featured tragedies, comedies, and satyr plays written by citizen-poets and performed by citizen-actors for the entire populace. During a choral presentation at one of these festivals around 560 B.C. Thespis, the first actor, stepped away from the chorus to take on an individual character for the first time and theatre, as we know it, was born (Brockett, 1968).

The first written theoretical account of drama therapy can be found in connection with Greek theatre. In his Poetics, Aristotle says the function of tragedy is to induce catharsis – a release of deep feelings (specifically pity and fear) to purge the senses and the souls of the spectators (Aristotle, trans. 1954). These cathartic feelings are experienced empathically for the characters in the play by the individuals watching the performance and they share that theatrical/cathartic experience with others in the audience magnifying the release and allowing for an adjustment in the community’s attitude as a whole. According to Aristotle, drama’s purpose is not primarily for education or entertainment, but to release harmful emotions which will lead to harmony and healing in the community (Boal, 1985).

In his analysis of Aristotle’s work, Brazilian director Augusto Boal (1985) suggests that this cathartic release helped preserve the status quo in Greek society, for a populace that is content and at peace will not rebel against the rulers in power. Aristotle’s ideas about catharsis have influenced many psychotherapy models from Freudian psychoanalysis onward by focusing psychotherapeutic work on the idea that insight into troubling emotional issues and healing occurs only after the patient has achieved catharsis. This process is disputed as unrealistic and unnecessary by cognitive-behavioral therapists, rational-emotive therapists, and others who feel that catharsis and insight are not enough to induce healing or change, that new thoughts and behaviors must be learned to replace the old, and that change doesn’t automatically follow emotional release and understanding.

MENTAL HEALTH ROOTS:

Ancient physicians recognized the value of drama as a therapeutic tool. Soranus, a second century Roman, believed that the way to cure mentally ill patients was to put them into peaceful surroundings and have them read, discuss, and participate in the production of plays in order to create order in their thinking and offset their depression (Cockerham, 1991). In the fifth century, another Roman Caelius Aurelius took this a step farther. He states in his treatise On Acute Diseases and on Chronic Diseases that in order to achieve emotional balance, patients should go to the theatre and watch a performance that expresses the emotion opposite to their condition. For depression, see a comedy; for mania or hysteria, see a tragedy (Jones, 1996).

For the most part, however, people with mental illness were not treated by taking trips to the theatre or by reading and performing plays; they were locked away in horrible prisons and asylums where they were either forgotten or attempts were made to cure them through exorcisms and treatments which could only be described as torture. Not until the late18th century, with the beginning of the “Moral Treatment” movement, did some mental institutions provide occupational, horticultural, and artistic activities as part of their treatment regimen (Cockerham, 1991; Whitaker, 2001). This approach to treatment continued in enlightened institutions in Europe and America into the 20th century and opened the door to the practice of drama therapy.

The groundwork for inclusion of the art therapies into psychiatric hospitals in the U.S. was laid after World War I. Talk therapy and medical interventions did nothing to help veterans recover from what at the time was called “shell-shock” (now called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), the emotional response to traumatic combat experience. However, the arts did help. In the early 20’s and 30’s, inclusion of the arts in hospital programming was expanded. Occupational therapists at many psychiatric hospitals began involving patients in the rehearsal and performance of plays, pageants, and puppet shows. Interestingly, the genre of plays performed was limited to comedy, so as not to upset the patients (Phillips, 1994).

T. D. Noble, a psychiatrist at Sheppard-Pratt Hospital in the Baltimore, MD area, noticed that patients in his psychotherapy sessions who had acted in the hospital plays were able to understand and identify emotions better than other patients, could link their present emotional state and behavior to their earlier trauma more easily, and were able to experiment with alternative modes of behavior with more flexibility (Phillips, 1994). He wrote in a 1933 issue of Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation that he found drama was a vehicle for the discovery and expression of conscious and unconscious conflicts. Playing other characters in the plays, he noted, helped patients release repressed emotions so that they could later deal with them directly in therapy. He also observed that drama was a useful diversion and encouraged socialization among patients (Phillips, 1994).

SOCIAL ROOTS OF DRAMA THERAPY:

The social action root of drama therapy can be traced to Hull House and other sites of the settlement movement. Jane Addams opened Hull House in 1889 to serve as a socializing, civilizing, connective, and reforming force for the immigrant, working-class neighborhood of the Nineteenth Ward of Chicago’s West Side (Jackson, 2001). She set up a series of what she termed “Lines of Activity:” courses, lectures, and group experiences which would bring culture, education, social connection, and change to the community living in proximity to the settlement house. The most popular activities were the drama clubs which provided socialization, a creative outlet, and an exciting group experience which led to a product shared with others (Jackson, 2001). Young people would join drama clubs at the age of seven or eight and found so much meaning in their work together that they would remain in them until they were in their 30’s and 40’s. The Little Theatre or community theatre movement grew, in part, out of the enthusiasm for amateur performance that the Hull House drama clubs created (Hecht, 1991).

Movement and recreational groups were run for children at Hull House by Neva Boyd (Jackson, 2001). She used games and improvisation to teach language skills, problem-solving, self-confidence and social skills. Boyd became a sociology and theatre professor at the University of Chicago and is one of the founders of the Recreational Therapy and Educational Drama movements in the U.S. Her student Viola Spolin, learned Boyd’s techniques and developed them further, writing the widely-studied Improvisation for the Theatre, from which many theatre games and improvisation techniques used in American theatre training and in drama therapy originate (Spolin, 1963).

AMERICAN FORE-RUNNERS IN THE FIELD OF DRAMA THERAPY:

The surge in the growth of educational theatre in the U.S. can be traced to this source and to the educational theatre program at Northwestern University in Chicago which was helmed by Winifred Ward. Many founders of the National Association for Drama Therapy began as creative drama teachers. Drama therapists like Eleanor Irwin, Rosilyn Wilder, Naida Weisberg, Rose Pavlow, Jan Goodrich, and Patricia Sternberg discovered the therapeutic benefits of process drama through their work with young children and extended it to other populations in an intentional manner.

Lewis Barbato is credited with first using the term drama therapy in print in an article he wrote in 1945 for the Journal of Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy and Florsheim published a book in which she discussed utilizing the enactment of scripted plays as therapy in 1945 (Casson, 2004). However, Gertrud Schattner, a Viennese actress, is credited with popularizing the term drama therapy and providing the impetus to create a national organization in the U.S (Reiter, 1996). In order to avoid Hitler’s invasion of Austria, Gertrud fled to Switzerland for safety during the Second World War on a temporary visa. When it expired, she used her acting skills to have herself admitted to a mental hospital as a patient, convincing the doctors that she was suicidal. She learned a great deal about mental illness from “hiding out” in the hospital (Reiter, 1996). Gertrud ended up marrying Edward Schattner, a psychiatrist working with refugees and survivors of Nazi concentration camps in a Swiss tuberculosis sanitarium. While he was able to make his patients’ bodies healthier, he had little success healing their utter desperation, depression, and despair. Edward asked Gertrud to come in to the sanitarium to do drama, storytelling, and poetry with the patients in a recreational vein. Through their participation in drama, they began to come back to life. Gertrud recognized what she was doing was something special and out of the ordinary – she called it drama therapy (Schattner, 1981; Reiter, 1996).

After the war the Schattners moved to the U.S. and Gertrud practiced drama therapy in a number of social service organizations and psychiatric hospitals in the New York City area. She taught the first drama therapy courses at Turtle Bay Music Center on Long Island (Reiter, 1996). In the early 1970’s, she and drama educator Richard Courtney began approaching other people who were doing similar work to collaborate on a publication which became Drama In Therapy, Volume One: Children and Volume Two: Adults, the first books in print about drama therapy (Schattner & Courtney, 1981). She and a number of those other pioneers, including David Read Johnson, Eleanor Irwin, Marilyn Richman, Rosilyn Wilder, Naida Weisberg, Ramon Gordon, Jan Goodrich, Barbara Sandberg, and others formed the National Association for Drama Therapy in 1979 in order to promote the training and education of drama therapists, to establish standards for registry, and to promote the field (Finneran, 1999).

EUROPEAN ROOTS OF DRAMA THERAPY:

At the same time drama therapy was developing in Great Britain. The British put the two words together: dramatherapy. Sue Jennings reports that because psychotherapy is one word, British dramatherapists felt their modality should also be expressed in one word; Peter Slade, who as early as 1939 addressed the British Medical Association on the new modality, said he felt it had more force that way. (Jones, 1996).

British origins can be connected to the educational drama work of Peter Slade in the 1930’s in an arts center in Worchester. He wrote Child Drama in 1954, the first book to connect drama with helping children develop emotional and physical control, confidence, observation skills, and abilities to be tolerant and considerate of others. In 1959, Slade began calling what he and others were doing dramatherapy in a pamphlet entitled “Dramatherapy as an Aid to Becoming a Person.” (Jones, 1996). Brian Way developed similar ideas about the essential growth drama offers participants in his classic Development through Drama, which collected ideas and methods from his work in educational drama from the 40’s through the mid-60’s (Way, 1967). Dorothy Heathcote used drama in education for teaching purposes, but also as a way for children to develop insight, understanding, and empathy. In 1964 Marian Lindkvist created the first dramatherapy training program, the Sesame Institute, which focused on drama and movement as forms of learning and expression, particularly in work with children with special needs. Peter Slade worked with her to deepen their method through psychological training.
Another early pioneer was Sue Jennings who began doing drama at a psychiatric hospital when she was a young drama student and called the work she was doing “remedial drama” (Jones, 1996). In the 1970’s, she completed a Ph.D. in anthropology which focused on ritual and started referring to her work as “dramatherapy.” (Jones, 1996). The British Association for Dramatherapists (BADth) was created in 1976 to promote the education and credentialing of dramatherapists in the UK (Jones, 1996). It is interesting to note that this is just three years before the NADT was formed in the U.S. While the British and the American forms of drama therapy developed separately and have different theoretical emphases, they truly did develop along parallel lines and in a similar pattern.

Drama therapy also has a history in Russia and the Netherlands. Phil Jones, in Drama as Therapy: Theatre as Living talks about two Russian drama therapists who were influenced strongly by the work of Stanislavky (Jones, 1996). Nicholai Evreinov, a Russian director, created a method he called Theatrotherapy which focused on the internal and psychological processes involved in acting to create healing and well-being in participants and help them re-frame or re-imagine their difficulties into a new way of life. Vladimir Iljine also created a Therapeutic Theatre in the years before the Russian Revolution (1908-1917) using theatre games and improvisational training to encourage flexibility, spontaneity, expressiveness, and communication abilities. He used his methods with individuals and groups in many situations and locations: psychiatric patients, people with emotional problems, and actors in the theatre (Jones, 1996).

After the Revolution there were others who carried on this work. One, Nikolai Sergevich Govorov, developed a theatrical storytelling technique which he used to help psychiatric patients and others develop social connections, self-confidence, and socially appropriate behavior (A. Martin, personal communication, June 2, 2004). He felt that much of mental health depended on people having the ability to socialize and support each other morally and humanly. Govorov was very aware of Evreinov’s work and consciously built on it and other Western therapeutic theatre work (A. Martin, personal communication, June 2, 2004). His work developed between the1950’s and the 1970’s.

One other country in which drama therapy currently thrives is the Netherlands. In the late 40’s, Activity Leaders involved with social welfare and youth care in community and residential care centers began using the arts and play for self-expression and social interaction (Jones, 1996). This gave rise to The Netherlands Society for Creative ExpressiveTherapy in the 1960s; a branch for dramatherapists was formed in 1981. There are, perhaps, more drama therapists per capita in the Netherlands than anywhere else in the world!

OTHER INFLUENCES:

Two other individuals should be mentioned as important influences on drama therapy. The first is Constantin Stanislavky. Before Stanislavsky, theatre was not considered a psychological art. His work at the Moscow Art Theatre (1900-1938) set the stage, not just for actor training in the 20th century, but also for the use of his methods as tools for connecting with the emotional mind by other educators and psychotherapy professionals (Blair, 2002). His intuitive utilization of the imagination (the brain’s natural ability to create imagery and metaphor), the unconscious (as a gateway to connecting with true emotion), and given circumstances (embodying the actor in the physical and psychological details of the moment in which the character is) mesh with research that has been done on neurology and brain processes in the past fifteen years. The body-mind is essentially one, as Antonio Damasio explains in Descartes’ Error and The Feeling of What Happens, and as Stanislavsky’s methods demonstrate (Blair, 2002). Stanislavsky’s methods deeply influenced not just the Russian drama therapists, but also theatre artists from the West, most notably in our case, Viola Spolin and the American theatre educators who developed into the first drama therapists.

The other critical individual who must be mentioned is Jacob Levy Moreno, the father of psychodrama, sociodrama, and sociometry (Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000). Moreno, born in Bucharest in 1889, grew up and studied medicine in Vienna. There, as an attending physician at a refugee camp at Mitterndorf at the end of World War I, he developed sociometry, a method of assessing of the social choices made within a group by its members and then intervening in a systemic way to create social change (Garcia & Buchanan in Johnson & Lewis, 2000). He applied these new measurements and intervention tools to create order and improve living conditions in the displaced residents’ lives. It worked! Later he started what amounted to a support group for Viennese prostitutes, using role play and improvisation to help them find solutions to social problems with which they were faced.

From 1920-24 Moreno led The Theatre of Spontaneity, an improvisational theatre in which professional actors created spontaneous drama based on current events. This work developed into sociodrama and later psychodrama as the focus changed from the community and social issues to personal and psychological issues of individuals. Moreno emigrated to the U.S. in 1925 where he continued developing his methods with the general public through the Impromptu Theatre at Carnegie Hall and by consulting at prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and residential treatment centers. In these latter institutions he helped individuals who had serious personal, emotional or social problems learn how to function better (Blatner, 2000). The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama (ASGPP) was founded in 1942. Many of the pioneers of creative arts therapy movements, experiential therapy, and traditional talk therapy came to his sessions and were influenced by his work, including Marion Chase, Eric Berne, Arthur Janov, and Fritz Perls (Blatner, 2000; Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000).

Psychodrama and drama therapy purists would argue that Moreno’s work is not a subset of drama therapy, but there is a truth to the idea that Moreno was the “first drama therapist,” as he identified role and social relationships as important therapeutic issues through his writing and work with clients long before American or British drama therapists became organized or began publishing (Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000). My view of psychodrama is that it is part of the drama therapy toolbox, and, therefore, its story rightfully belongs as part of drama therapy history.

CURRENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Currently, there are two Master degree programs in the U.S. and one in Canada approved by NADT for training drama therapists: New York University in New York City, California Institute for Integral Studies in San Francisco, and Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. NADT has also developed an alternative training program through which students can work with a Board Certified Trainer/Mentor to create an individualized program of study in drama therapy in conjunction with a Masters degree in theatre, social work, counseling, special education, or another discipline related to drama therapy. Being an interdisciplinary field, training in drama therapy requires courses in psychology/therapy, drama therapy, and other creative arts therapy as well as internships in which students practice their skills and receive supervision from experienced professional drama therapists and other credentialed mental health professionals.

The professional credential for drama therapists in the U.S. and Canada is the R.D.T. (Registered Drama Therapist) which can be applied for after one has finished an appropriate Masters degree, the approved drama therapy and psychology coursework, an 800 hour drama therapy internship, a minimum of 500 hours of theatre experience and a minimum of 1,500 hours of professional hours working as a drama therapist. Most registered drama therapists have much more than a minimum of 500 hours of theatre when they discover drama therapy since most begin as theatre artists or educators who discover the healing aspects of drama through their theatre training and work. However, more and more social workers, counselors, and special educators are discovering that talk therapy is not enough; that there is a need for “things done” in therapy for insight and change to be effective for clients. As this happens, drama therapists with theatre origins are being joined by drama therapists with clinical mental health origins who have discovered the magic and intrinsic healing value of drama. Among the ranks of drama therapy students, there are even ministers, priests, and rabbis who have discovered the healing power of drama therapy. Perhaps this is an indication that we are rounding the bend to complete the circle to the place where our drama therapy roots began.

INTERACTIVE DRAMA THERAPY TIMELINE:  Mouse over the bullets to reveal more details.

 


 

Bibliography:

Aristotle. (1954). Aristotle’s rhetoric and poetics. NY: The Modern Library.

Blair, R. (2002). Reconsidering Stanislavsky: Feeling, feminism, and the actor. Theatre Topics. (12), 2, 177-190.

Blatner, A. (2000). Foundations of psychodrama. NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Brockett, O. (1968). History of the theatre. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Boal, A. (1985). Theatre of the oppressed. NY: Theatre Communications Group.

Casson, J. Tribute to Peter Slade, read at Peter Slade’s funeral, June 30, 2004.

Cockerham, W. C. (2000). Sociology of mental disorder. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon Books.

Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. San Diego: Harcourt, Inc.

Finneran, L. (1999). Beginnings: Letters to and from Gert. Dramascope. (19), 2, 1, 18-20.

Gordon, R. (1999). Beginnings: Cell Block Theatre. Dramascope. (19), 1, 1, 13, 26.

Harrison, J. E. (1913). Ancient art and ritual. Bath, England: Moonraker Press.

Hecht, S. J. (1991). Edith de Nancrede at Hull House: Theatre programs for youth.Youth Theatre Journal. (6), 1, 3-10.

Jackson, S. (2001). Lines of activity: Performance, historiography, Hull-House domesticity. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Jones, P. (1996). Drama as therapy: Theatre as living. London: Routledge.

Landy, R. (1997). Drama therapy – The state of the art. The Arts in Psychotherapy. (24), 1, 5-15.

Lewis P. & Johnson D. R. (Eds.). (2000). Current approaches in drama therapy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Lewis-Williams, D. (2002). The mind in the cave: Consciousness and the origins of art. London: Thames & Hudson.

Mithen, S. (1996). The prehistory of the mind: The cognitive origins of art, religion and science. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd.

Pfeiffer, J.E. (1982). The creative explosion: An inquiry into the origins of art and religion. New York: Harper & Row.

Philips, M. E. (1996). The use of drama and puppetry in occupational therapy during the 1920’s and 1930’s. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy (50), 3, 229- 233.

Reiter, S. (1996). Honoring Gert Schattner. Dramascope (14), 1, 1, 3.

Schattner, G. & Courtney, R. (1981). Drama in therapy, Volume One: Children, NY: Drama Book Specialists.

Slade, P. (1954). Child drama. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Slade, P. (1959). Dramatherapy as an aid to becoming a person. Pamphlet, Guild of Pastoral Psychology.

Spolin, V. (1963). Improvisation for the theatre. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.

Stanislavsky, C. (1936). An actor prepares. New York: Theatre Arts Books.

Way, B. (1967). Development through drama. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.

Whitaker, R. (2001). Mad in America: Bad science, bad medicine, and the enduring mistreatment of the mentally ill. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.