long term use of plavix side effects medicine digoxin used for can you only get styplon on prescription cheap brand levitra pills can you buy acai berry at walmart ranitidine liquid cost buy cleocin from canada viagra-los-algodones-pharmacy maximum remeron dose trigeminal neuralgia treatment tegretol dose elimite australia price micronase drugs for sale online yasmin india lamisil once usage confido order in the us strattera buy online canada imitrex from india how long does it take for atarax to take effect cheap meclizine 25 mg albuterol side effects in infants accutane nhs waiting list can order terramycin online what does promethazine dm syrup have codeine in it cheapest viagra super active paypal cardura e10 p overnight pharmacy levitra professional serophene for sale claritin online forum prescription purchase buying tretinoin 0,05 using paypal purchase aciclovir 1 200mg tablets effexor xr no prrescription nike air max 1 leopard print size 6 without a script buy abana heartcare comprar prevacid all types relafen pills where do i lipitor in uk generic hyaluronic acid for sale on line reviews on diovan hct fast famvir deleviery when does actoplus met go generic doctor order cymbalta canada buy flomax online with mastercard nexium from india synthroid prescription medicine canadian pharmacies for nonprescription retin a safe place order zanaflex allopurinol discount card seroquel 50 mg tablet buy yasmin no prescription cheap cooper pharma pvt limited cialis original erkennen low price roxithromycin uk dostinex mexico no prescription dostinex pills imitrex cause weight gain directions on how to take cephalexin shingles treatment valacyclovir dosage diamox pill shortage imitrex now billig rumalaya liniment online kaufen hair loss medicine propecia what does fruit juice take to allegra cipro dose can i order arimidex no prescription in the usa luvox mg buy cialis indian generic viagra trusted site nitrofurantoin next day cheap provera 40 mg ou acheter un livre d or mariage can order cytotec canada buy zovirax tablets online us generic for yasmin syeda fast unisom delivery purchase promethazine cialis sublingual no prescription canada tramadol 50 mg nhs clonidine tablets for purchase aspirin online legally naprosyn online australia pilex tablets purchase on line what is brand advair diskus pills used for buy combivent line canadian pharmacy benzaclin prednisone side effects long term use baclofene et sevrage alcoolique order zanaflex cheap purchase levaquin on line in mexico canada drugs brahmi with prescription zetia usa sale 100 mg elocon avalide pharmacy prices list mail order generic mentax zanaflex cheap us pharmacy tube 8 pariet brand positioning pilex canada head office forzest drug class prometrium barato what is subtherapeutic depakote level online pharmacy differin costco pharmacy lotensin price can you buy clomid in canada ventolin hfa 90 mcg inhaler coupon elocon without a prescription from mexico protonix online pharmacies with out prescription haldol 10 mg cost buy minocycline online us no prescription how to use terramycin eye ointment for humans order maxalt lowest price hyzaar pharmacy diarex buy canada aqua bandstand plunge neck generic rosuvastatin cost cheapest risperdal in the uk himalaya lasuna ranitidine ships from india buy amitriptyline no prescription 10mg male fertility drugs uk cheap legal furosemide uk norvasc 10 mg tablet picture mobic generic brand viagra online overnight delivery generic seroquel from india fluoxetine purchase in canada no prescription effexor xr visa buying tegretol for dogs buy dapoxetine usa order non generic haldol buy differin next day minipress cheap uk how to get reglan atorlip-10 fast canada order extendaquin canada hydrocortisone acetate 2.5 what are some over the counter antibiotics for a uti no prescription yagara how much does doxycycline hyclate cost pharmacy diet pills rx net suppliers of carafate in us buy generic accutane online cheap isotretinoin levitra plus from usa pharmacy where to buy valtrex drugs online use anacin coupon online buy retin-a ge australia cialis soft sale tabs pharmacy cozaar for sale cheap uk viagra and cialis buy celebrex in singapore compare prices avapro buy dermovate no prescription discount betnovate can you drink while on zithromax canadian-pharmacy-dunedin-fl atarax online meds doxycycline buy online ireland buy amitriptyline online cheap price taking viagra under age 18 menshealthviagraspecial generic cialis super active switzerland pille yasminelle online kaufen buy antibiotics over the counter uk cystone from usa fluoxetine drugstore com buy cialis super active online overnight generic date for cymbalta acne after stopping depo provera buy brand viagra online from mexico meridia capital javier faus cardizem 100mg cheap 600mg ibuprofen dosage prevacid now where to buy maxalt etodolac rx estradiol hemihydrate source can you only get terramycin on prescription discount card for plavix nymphomax 100 review decadron for sale usa feldene dispersible tablets promethazine with codeine online pharmacy prescription solutions phone number buy alli diet pill cheap female cialis drugs for sale lisinopril without prescription canada does requip cause weight gain long term side effects of viagra sublingual buy viagra overnight aldactone pills online in the india power plus drogue vente sur internet cheapest calcium carbonate tablets uk buy l-tryptophan in singapore prograf without prescription medication what is danazol for synthroid purchase canada buy female cialis capsules biaxin where can i buy it can you only get olanzapine on prescription buy ventolin boots cephalexin patient reviews cheapest trazodone vermox brand positioning viagra para mujer en argentina cheap rosuvastatin calcium can you get ginseng low chloromycetin zithromax tablets price how to get zyloprim in australia levlen precio mexico zenegra mist canada buy levitra online thru paypals generic name allegra dosage order bupron sr overnight synthroid online pay paypal yasmin reviews 2012 methocarbamol high dosage buy mobic purchasing cleocin gel online uk tricor coupon code prednisone dosepak directions name generic drug aricept buy zofran patch aldara imiquimod buy what is liv kamagra soft cheap prilosec over counter hotel villa cipro lido venedig amaryl 2mg cost does lipitor now have a generic order elocon cream requip xl prolonged release tablets where do i buy deltasone best place buy tadacip pct ordering azulfidine high dose prednisone side effects in dogs cialis jelly billig kaufen brand feldene for sale a good web page to buy medrol with no script retino cream from india comprar depakote original en madrid orlistat no script geriforte syrup uk brand name canadanizoral can you buy ventolin over the counter naprosyn generic wikipedia drugs methotrexate 2.5 mg tablet color finast for sale zovirax ointment treat shingles proscar (finasteride) 5mg tablets buy zanaflex fast shipping buy atacand mg online lamictal price canada antibiotics and the pill yasmin alli on prescription can get paroxetine side effects forum professions allied to medicine pams pharmacy sell viagra in malaysia orlistat reviews uk cheap uk rx buy alesse serevent generico italiano discount endep dapoxetine without prescription canada craigslist new york personals men seeking men planet drugs direkt plavix over the counter pills to treat yeast infection kosovarja revista online what is ciprofloxacin hcl used for viagra cialis trial packs cheap asacol hong kong buy mesalamine cheap zithromax without a prescription from canada reviews on chloromycetin online pharmacy india no prescription best place buy sumycin phone in order for dutas side effects of premarin tablets buy trazodone in usa low price cardura uk advair diskus shop net order generic elocon generic pills for cleocin generic nootropil paypal canadian discount ceftin online baclofen alcohol side effects purchase ciplox online where purchase singulair tadalis sx dose coupons for effexor xr for free is there a shortage of strattera lamisil cheap price buy apcalis sx paypal finasteride in the treatment of japanese men with male pattern hair loss floxin online shipping levitra dosage recommended how to order lynoral pilex discount medications minomycin discount can pyridium help interstitial cystitis lasix diuretic sale augmentin tablets from buy online fast delivery buy valtrex cialis uses women safe buy dulcolax online to buy finpecia in uk cough syrup with codeine and promethazine over the counter is there a drug comparative to noroxin can i make trental best online pharmacy for generic viagra reviews is viagra over the counter in hong kong lexapro medication depression betapace generico italiano dramamine no prrescription tetracycline hcl 500mg cap how to get trial erection packs 1 seroxat side effects withdrawal order cheap viagra online uk cialis cymbalta medication free-coupon questionable content micardis medicine online mentat ds syrup order can i order toprol xl no prescription in the usa alavert sale rogaine 2 without insurance purchase kamagra gold cheap 100mg ampicillin buy online ireland eldepryl for daily use canada cheap shatavari no prescription man vs food not healthy chloroquine recommended dosage liquid zithromax dosage for children buy periactin online from mexico buy ampicillin us why shortage of tetracycline lisinopril with or without food is compazine legal in uk top 10 online indocin sites diovan mais barato anacin medication wiki buy lithium aa batteries canada cheapest place to buy aciphex snovitra super power on the internet buy anacin online with mastercard dog car sickness dramamine dose deltasone online australia order levitra from canada online pharmacy ponstel what does augmentin treat in children how to use korean ginseng extract what is the dosage of zyrtec for cats naprosyn next day order xenical online no prescription with a mastercard map of where alligators are found omnicef generic cheap costs seroquel withdrawal nausea bactrim acne side effects can i still get pregnant on the depo provera shot proventil canada head office meloxicam overdose in children non generic trileptal lipitor 10mg price purchase generic mestinon licensed pharmacy acticin nizagara no prescription canada lipitor cost canadian generic viagra delivered overnight dipyridamole for sale australia viramune delivery uk cipro online pay paypal elavil doctors online comprar metformina contrareembolso buy olanzapine online amazon will aldactone cause weight gain xenical uk cheapest average dose of clomid for men norvasc no prescription needed imitrex for sale australia cipla pharmaceuticals mumbai top 10 online ophthacare sites viagra 50 mg pfizer bula lanoxin online price ventolin tablets side effects preis levitra 10 mg 12 stu"ck robaxin dosage information triamcinolone acetonide cream 0.5 what is doxycycline hyclate used to treat buy kamagra online impotence buy cheap acyclovir rogaine 5 without a prescription free clomid samples where can i get diarex canadian online pharmacy for propranolol wild ginseng prices 2013 what are the most common side effects of wellbutrin brand name azulfidine online risperdal on line beat way to order viagra plus brahmi in the uk now toradol online pharmacy uk myambutol shortage renagel tablets used phosphate blopress australia price sinequan on line purchase apcalis sx mail order india purchase atorlip 20 coumadin and over the counter meds liv 52 uk online tadacip 40 womans viagra current price ranitidine elocon for sale online levlen tablets for purchase canadian generic cialis lipothin over counter where diarex pharmacy ditropan online from india mexican pharmacy no prescription plavix mail order generic diovan craigslist usa trucks texas online shopping viagra india where can i buy tetracycline online without a prescription lopid online overnight propranolol pill canadian buy generic cipro generic cialis scams can order doxycycline canada dulcolax laxative tablets 5 mg lipothin on line buy alphagan 100mg online combivent costa rica how old to buy claritin d finasteride tab 5mg used for buying pain meds online legit can i buy diflucan online cost plavix 75 mg wikipedia aricept online price is buspar available on line in canada is there a generic medication for plavix mexico alligators and crocodiles kytril 2mg tablet cheap nitroglycerin 0.3 mg what is zyrtec good for buying imitrex from canada no prescription low cost celadrin how to by zyvox online rumalaya weight gain where to buy alligators buy requip no prescription fast delivery korean red ginseng for sale safe place order bactroban wellbutrin tablets images voltaren 50 ec how much does 5 mg of abilify cost can you buy propranolol online doxycycline 100 review buy levitra fast shipping moduretic tablets purchase on line doxycycline online fast shipping antibiotics for chest infection in pregnancy how long to use citalopram aciclovir drugs best site get zenegra when will viagra be in generic form can you get cozaar bactrim pills online in the india buy generic trandate with bonus meclizine hydrochloride australia relafen to buy in england omnicef usa doxycycline 100 mg tablet wsw what are augmentin 625mg tablets used for how to take clomid and provera generic tofranil pm glucotrol xl order aciclovir australia pharmacy acquisto furosemide sicuro online price of yasmin in india buy differin tablets uk purchase cialis in mexico can i order ventolin no prescription in the usa propranolol dosage children want to buy cipro tablets yasmin cost nhs aricept brand positioning vermox perth australia flomax and sleeping pills levlen birth control generic diltiazem 40 mg pharmacy bactrim ds side effects nausea generic exelon no prescription reglan side effects weight gain pharmacy has best price eulexin can i take viagra with high blood pressure medication purchase lexapro discount coupon online zyvox mg eurax rogaine 2 in the uk lidocaine gel boots roche xenical 120mg how to take erythromycin 500mg comprar decadron original en madrid what class of drugs is synthroid cost of accutane acne treatment is there something better than flomax voveran sr tablets uses is it illegal to order generic levitra plus canada buy trental without prescription terbinafine hydrochloride vs clotrimazole can you buy altace serophene suppliers overseas snovitra super power prices ditropan reviews and dosage fucidin h cream used for orlistat annual sales what is the dosage for norvasc gasex for sale evista for dogs buy buy proventil boots pharmacy propecia onde comprar cheap generic naprosyn generic tamoxifen safe oxytrol tablets online generic uk paypal hyaluronic acid generic for protonix 20 mg suhagra next day buy cheap cardura pills buy lorazepam online no prescription needed buy lotensin online india duphalac lactulose dose adalat prescription coupon cephalexin capsules 500mg side effects metformin 40mg buy arimidex singapore can order glucotrol xl online decreasing celexa dosage where to buy cialis cytotec for abortion dose best no rx online pharmacy over counter tadacip i need cialis now buy compazine new zealand online buy tinidazole without a prescription from canadian pharmacy buy generic cialis online with prescription bentyl medicines how to import valtrex cytotec birth control online canada diclofenac buy canada cheap antabuse 200mg lexapro prescription medication dipyridamole wanted online review no script anafranil mg phenergan how to buy order diclofenac online with visa methylprednisolone injection for dogs exelon usa cvs prices is aricept better than exelon metformin generic price philippines do you need rx remeron quickest diflucan cheap viagra online fast shipping how to use phenergan renova black toilet paper uk purchase accutane order pilex no rx canadian pharmacy ceftin medication overnight delivery cyklokapron limited india topamax comprar much does xenical cost ireland valtrex 20 mg order doxycycline online no prescription with a mastercard periactin from australia brand cialis cheap canada pharmacy kamagra oral jelly generic reviews overseas pharmacy no prescription levaquin buy decadron lipothin by mail order us pharmacy online aciphex cheapest actoplus met in the uk evecare in the uk target pharmacy prednisone levothroid discount code female estrogen pills for men side effects of promethazine cough syrup glyburide 2.5 mg tab can i get astelin what does glucophage where to buy prednisolone 15mg for dogs stopping prednisone side effects cats comprar lipitor original meclizine to buy in england where is aravane rezai from acyclovir 200 mg dosage how to take levaquin mg over the counter doxycycline monohydrate online pharmacy no prescription needed arimidex aristocort c how to get benicar in australia top 10 online cozaar sites where to buy viagra in kl sinequan online order cabergoline pregnancy class avodart drugs for sale buy nimotop singapore viagra plus to buy in australia cytoxan max dose what is in zofran tablets health canada periactin buy metoclopramide from india comprar tricor online med cab arjuna buy estrace 5 shuddha guggulu cheap ventolin salbutamol ingredients cheap viagra for sale uk why has zanaflex been discontinued ordering silagra discount pharmacy promethazine hydrochloride ph. eur. 20 mg statue to meridia map long time side effects lisinopril purchase revatio mg top 10 online levlen sites phexin cheap cheap cystone free delivery viagra professional perth australia what do arimidex pills look like best price for real levitra professional generic for nizoral wellbutrin sr cheap uk vente de digoxin au quebec viagra c best online store cephalexin delivery uk forum order zaditor online order nitroglycerin ointment allegra medication and fruit juice seroflo suppliers overseas order hytrin 5mg billig cleocin online kaufen online drugstore canada no prescription zenegra overnight what is viagra plus priligy us online pharmacy no prescription precose fastest aleve uk delivery proscar mg india fluoxetine tablets for sale antabuse online coupon code buy doxycycline hyclate 100mg online xerograx capsulas colchicine side effects long term use what does buspar pills look like lethal dose of skelaxin buy pyridium overseas buy genuine cleocin gel uk albenza pills drugstore list of medication for anxiety disorder betnovate discontinued acheter pas cher bentyl buy lasix water pill order pravachol online uk legal buy nitroglycerin online canada cheap unisom sale uk remeron discounts order ginseng medication by mail buy zestoretic online usa voltaren perth australia lexapro supplier in uk order lozol online with visa azathioprine and allopurinol the price of an avoidable drug interaction antibiotics in pregnancy and autism generic himcolin nizagara online in uk canadian healthcare system pros and cons rhinocort purchase where can you buy atarax where can i get imuran pills get glucotrol xl las vegas generic glucophage switzerland buy beconase aq no prescription dose imuran cause weight gain ranitidine in usa buy propecia for women over counter viagra uk prozac tablet online purchase safe buy silagra online how much does doxycycline cost for dogs is generic zoloft available in usa cheapest viagra online australia buy arimidex generic online what does allegra hives antihistamine tetracycline for chlamydia purchase levothroid mg canadian health act 2008 antabuse online purchase fastest viagra professional uk delivery levothroid prescription coupon buy singulair without a script can you buy online order rocaltrol qsymia wiki ordering phenergan purchase phexin pills what is between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum alsactone eldepryl discount voucher cymbalta 60 mg overdose dostinex purchase femcare tablets price antibiotic ciprofloxacin side effects order generic tofranil capoten from usa pharmacy buy caverta india is saw palmetto better than propecia actonel comprare nymphomax 40 mg pharmacy viagra on sale in canada side effects of ciproxin 500mg mexico pharmacies online that sell cafergot comprar keppra 500mg buy moduretic in singapore diclofenac without prescription canada what is naprosyn 375 mg used for xenical mg buy where to buy chloramphenicol in canada safely luvox annual sales how to purchase baclofen online clomid online no prescription canada does lexapro cause weight gain or weight loss prescription drug requip pharmacy support worker role buy diet pills from mexico flovent daily use reviews no prescription capoten sale eldepryl pas cher italie maxalt tablets us online is generic epivir-hbv available in usa effexor xr on line in the canada dipyridamole buy online ireland isoptin phone orders dejar de tomar sertralina de golpe bactrim cost without insurance atarax doctor nexium esomeprazole delayed release tablets unisom discounts codes pfizer viagra annual sales azathioprine dose for crohn;s phenergan cost comparison drugs buy sinequan dostinex price retin-a 0,05 prix en pharmacie en france canadian council for drug education med cab rocaltrol acivir pills pharmacies in canada drugs mg allegra phone orders buy sildenafil revatio what is cipro used for sinus infections v-gel roche precio argentina alesse buy canada cheapest sildenafil citrate online voltaren daily use reviews tadacip 20 mg wikipedia what type of drug is hydrea uk version of cialis jelly lithium pas cher italie fosamax where to get order adalat 30 mg pharmacy what does metformin do for pcos buy levitra cheap zocor lawsuits delivery prescription combivent online calan discount where to buy tetracycline online mexico chloramphenicol discount medications elimite order online what is a z pack for colds permethrin 5 percent buy buy kamagra gold 80 mg online erexor tablets how much will compazine cost caverta precio mexico cialis espn ad buy ceftin in singapore Purchase abilify 5mg online how much metformin to take for weight loss toprol cheapest rate shatavari kalpa for weight gain filmi onlain besplatno large round blue pill 100 sunrise tadalafil tablets 20 mg tadarise 20 tinidazole billig kaufen triamterene generico italiano buy abilify 30 mg low coreg beta drug buy lasix online xalatan drug class research grade cialis jelly purchase astelin lowest price avodart online discount canadian pharmacy brahmi bactrim compuesto suspension dosis advair diskus tablets purchase on line buy alligator clips bow making ribbon order diflucan over the counter pill online plavix india can you buy acai berries walmart reglan cost comparison lowest price sumycin is alli back in stock yet brand cialis online in usa discount serevent amoxil phone orders order avalide medication by mail where can i order viagra super active terramycin refills safe viagra sites uk flagyl prescription drug cheap cipract tadacip online kaufen what is trileptal for toradol discounted indian buy altace online generic ventolin paypal purchase oxytrol pills order unisom overnight effexor xr suppliers overseas maximum dose of keppra in children medrol dose pack canada what is ranitidine tablets cafergot suppositories buy rhinocort spray price trazodone refills no prescription levitra super active plus cialis doxycycline monohydrate 100 mg + serratiopeptidase 10 mg what is clomipramine anafranil cialis and canadian pharmacy purchasing metoclopramide online non prescription ethionamide baclofen rx info tricor spain the canadian pharmacy winnipeg purchase aciclovir 100mg tablets albendazole generics--a comparative in vitro study zanaflex western australia fong bros speedster mail-order xenical order biaxin online no prescription with a amex bystolic dose conversion buy doxycycline for acne buy cafergot paypal viagra side effects for men best place to buy bactrim in uk anxiety nhs choices lipothin dosage recommended toradol on line buy homeopathic medicines online in india nizoral noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy phone in order for nitroglycerin buy phenergan have no prescription buy paxil astrailia why is there a shortage of trandate cozaar in canada european association of pharmacy technicians como tomar omifin para embarazarme where can you buy terramycin over the counter reviews on alavert que es mejor cialis o viagra where to inject toradol buy lexapro with paypal purchase robaxin on line in india purchase diflucan online no prescription can you take naprosyn daily online generic ventolin buy cheap prescription avapro online purchase generic viagra jelly buy bupropion fast shipping cymbalta with american express buy plendil xr without prescription remeron cheap vardenafil hcl 10mg tab where to buy silagra with echeck renagel buy on line generic femcare uk paypal where zocor nolvadex without prescription australia what is the average dosage for lamictal what is azithromycin used for in cats over counter cafergot buy eltroxin gsk cipla medpro annual report 2011 buy trimox in uk how long does it take for pyridium to take away the pain buy cialis 5mg online finpecia mg buy buy xenical online malaysia promethazine generic brand buying cialis soft buy pilex online reviews online arimidex purchase valacyclovir hcl 1 gram tabmyl meclizine 25 mg what is it used for cordarone in the uk flonase pharmacy prices list where to alesse levonorgestrel drugs can i get medicine for chlamydia over the counter buy stromectol paypal accepted promethazine side effects long term use buy zestril no prescription fong bros baltimore paroxetine hydrochloride side effects where to hyzaar generic risperdal uk paypal my canadian comp lab tadalafila 5 mg bula protonix over the counter medication can you order levothroid aldactone pre-contest bodybuilding low altace high blood pressure ramipril buy generic zithromax no prescription nizoral to buy in the usa without a prescription allegra pills sale medrol dosage children viagra for men online shopping in india where to buy mircette ointment allopurinol through buy yasmin with visa buy curacne online buy cheap calan sr buy voveran sr greece grifulvin v overnight trandate medication where to buy reglan ordering online pharmacy baytril noah injectable roaccutane uk price decadron non perscription countries online pharmacy uk arimidex cost of keppra zenegra over counter is mail order bupron sr safe vantin daily use reviews legal buy floxin online canada tetracycline antibiotics purchase l-tryptophan pharmacy order zofran zydis tablets medicine crestor 10 mg generic pharmacy philippines careers cheapest lincocin provera pharmacy prices list recall on lipitor generics quick healthy man food fucidin available over counter uk buy diclofenac gel in usa buy eulexin online reviews safe place order kamagra soft order antivert tablets american alligator interesting facts for kids cialis prodaja beograd albendazole uk boots lov cost retino-a cream 0,05 augmentin duo 1g dosage a good web page to buy zyloprim with no script adalat tablets for purchase vytorin purchase in canada no prescription diovan online overnight shipping order ciplox overnight zurich insurance jobs 1000 ways to die coumadin class action lawsuit against crestor side effects of speman forte florinef delivery uk purchase plavix in india online glycomet purchase danazol cost canadian depakote 20mg tab erectile dysfunction medication samples where to buy blopress in canada safely champix dosage forms ordering vpxl on line maxalt online uk med cab liposafe buying cafergot online generic liv 52 cost eurax cream for chicken pox generic torsemide uk paypal online sale of aciclovir bph medications cialis mexico buy amantadine online filmi onlain hd buy amoxil cheap kamagra uk com brand name cystone online ezonlinepharmacy.com can you buy azithromycin doxycycline what is bactrim used for treating what does metformin 500mg er look like how to use hyzaar cyklokapron pharmacy order 100 mg lexapro arimidex price in india lady era overnight pharmacy actoplus met mg uk synthroid weight loss bodybuilding viagra doctors online can i buy lansoprazole online best site for albendazole is there a generic for nexium is propecia available in canada order actoplus met on line uk voltaren gel india triamterene australia price buy renagel 800 mg buyers of fosamax canada triamterene tablets 40mg how much is benfotiamine tablets do i need a prescription for retin-a 0,025 coreg usa pharmacy is abana available over the counter phentermine hydrochloride 37.5 mg buy online is there a generic form of atacand herbal viagra suppliers australia azithromycin bronchiectasis brafix tablets price accutane journal side effects indinavir tablets online what is sildenafil genfar buy cialis soft without a subscription online pharmacy uk rogaine 2 meloxicam 15mg plavix prescription assistance program application neurontin online usa toradol on line for sale no script is evecare a prescription drug purchase wellbutrin sr in australia lowest priced isoniazid roxithromycin on line no script tetracycline with no rx lansoprazole dose pediatric will fedex ship lithium batteries overseas detrol pills research grade benfotiamine arjuna indian restaurant menu low cost urispas wellbutrin xl or sr tinidazole side effects in dogs where is aravalli range furosemide 40 mg tablet best price micronase buy cardizem hong kong lotrisone drugstore.com atepros 5 mg reviews on cialis super active buy diflucan online australia mexican pharmacy no prescription maxaman beconase aq without prescription zerit order canada what is the drug protonix used for buying reglan using paypal eutirox 25 viagra pfizer uk walmart pharmacy jobs florida generic differin gel 3 ordering sublingual cheap generic cialis paxil cr generic cost simvastatin vs crestor dosage buy brand dilantin cvs minoxidil reviews topimax paypal sodium rabeprazole+side effects order betnovate pill buy aciphex cheapest frumil delivery micronase online ordering buy prednisolone online no prescription antivert roche precio argentina is it safe to order lamictal triamterene visa ciplox tablets how to take tamoxifen for fertility etodolac prices usa ratio clarithromycin alcohol can you buy antidepressants over the counter uk pilex tablets uk buy brand hydrochlorothiazide do i need a prescription for menosan buy clomid for cheap drugstore suhagra uk boots get viagra prescription 24h online support best place to buy levitra without a prescription discount online generic vermox metformin generic brand name lithium dose bipolar disorder levitra in the uk now switching from dilantin to generic can order cabgolin canada over the counter antibiotic ointment for dogs buy robaxin cheap side effects of diovan 320 25 buspar 5mg tablets what does the drug aricept do order flomaxtra purchasing azulfidine online uk ordering viagra professional prescription brand name emsam online allegra over the counter equivalent prescription best torsemide prices cheap uk generic compazine where to buy mifepristone in the philippines pastillas para abortar cytotec efectos secundarios actavis bupropion xl side effects stieva-a cream for stretch marks buy bupropion xl online no prescription low dose accutane mild acne periactin ordering online pharmacy combivent uk pharmacy us pharmacies online that sell diamox cheapest place to buy mevacor xeloda dose with radiation generic sinequan cost cipro medicine side effects online cheap low cost altace plus sale sildenafil viagra cheap order endep cod saturday can you buy flomax in ireland ephedra diet pills for women buy rumalaya gel paypal buy atorlip-20 online with out prescription sale drugs tadapox online cane u buy viagra over the counter in canada what is premarin pills used for buy diabecon pills how to get plendil zerit without script what is zaditor used for buy accutane 20mg order minocycline usa cvs prices zanaflex medication where to buy best place to buy robaxin online lincocin doctors online cost of finasteride american express login canada login safest anti anxiety medication pregnancy purchase of cialis with master card augmentin 375 mg tablet buspar medication interactions nexium rx quickest frumil purchase celexa lowest price rumalaya forte 20 mg viagra in okinawa aleve without insurance canadian pharmacy frumil fluconazole over the counter australia order prednisone on line india shallaki billig kaufen buy venlor with no rx health canada urispas free asthma inhalers testosterone therapy side effects in women what is the cost of lipitor buy online hyaluronic acid generic new alliances thundercats 2011 glyset pills sweat crohn;s medication entocort chest pain from propranolol can i order kamagra online ordering generic cialis online pharmacy is it legal to buy rx online evista indianapolis what percentage of people gain weight on lexapro tetracycline iron chelation comprar hytrin original buying finpecia online amitriptyline without prescription lantus dose titration prescription buy cheap cardura what is baclofen drugs buy wellbutrin in usa erexor overnight delivery buy genuine tegretol uk ajanta pharma philippines inc medical representatives emsam india seroquel low dose for sleep zocor best price mexican pharmacy no prescription kamagra chewable is uroxatral legal in uk reviews on erythromycin phenergan prices us names of tetracycline antibiotics protonix generic trade name levothyroxine without prescription us pharmacy tetracycline hydrochloride msds gabapentin 100mg high online pharmacy dipyridamole cost of ventolin hfa aspirin 100 mg side effects buy viagra soft 100 cheap diamox 500mg advair diskus overnight shipping over the counter oxytrol tadacip online cheap coreg sale drugs ordering low dose differin cialis sales schedule buy viagra delivery next day forzest overnight shipping cheap benefits of korean panax ginseng 100 mg what is flagyl er drugs metoprolol spc himalaya geriforte price in india cheap xenical sale uk how to take sarafem mg adalat xl 20 mg tablet singulair prices canada order eurax cream diclofenaco cinfa in english buy prednisone dogs online buy nitroglycerin online in usa buy anti anxiety medication trimix gel for ed irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide association in the treatment of hypertension cialis super active in the uk best pharmacy to order malegra fxt lamictal not generic canada bystolic ciprofloxacin uses for stds keflex online shipping order furosemide medication by mail glyset sale buy clozaril australia what is propranolol medicine used for trimox pharmacy prices list buy diltiazem for daily use genuine levlen best price order aricept prescription trileptal where to buy in canada india lipitor price acheter glucophage feldene drug schedule amitriptyline shortage can you order cialis professional what is chloroquine tablets used for boots pharmacy uk morning after pill order lasix no prescription flovent diskus generic name seroquel xr reviews weight gain european association hospital pharmacy ephedraxin from canada 100 mg snovitra super power original alesse online propranolol sale best pharmacy prices cialis prescription abana medicine himalaya herbals buy starlix capsules zebeta roche precio argentina amoxicillin 875 mg twice a day lamisil price philippines cialis reviews cialis maximum daily dosage clomid clomiphene citrate cycle universal online meds generic pills for amantadine voltaren now cheap claritin micardis online without a prescription kamagra to buy in england normal dose of flagyl. for dogs buy evista mg discount drugs of canada delray beach indian aciphex buy generic prescription dostinex ordering no prescription how to buy coumadin in london common side effects of bactrim ds price increase pletal cialis 800mg reviews buy nizoral online canadian pharmacy allopurinol over counter drug what is panax ginseng used for tamoxifen western australia where can i buy saw palmetto extract alli for sale in uk buy tricor 10 singulair tablets dosage how to order epivir-hbv where to buy albendazole drugs online bula do sertralina purchase nizoral in australia lipitor from usa pharmacy herbal water pills cefadroxil no prescription compare prices medicamento tenormin 50 mg methotrexate medication arthritis suppliers of desyrel in us bupropion weight loss side effects clomid mg buy minipress without prescription miami vermox how to buy differin in canada nuevo cialis 5mg original licensed pharmacy brand levitra order trazodone online no prescription with a echeck order water pills online drugstore zyrtec d uk cvs online pharmacy coupons buy generic viagra with bonus flovent diskus discounts diclofenac gel sublingual dosage order live pet food online amoxil pills drugstore generic effexor price carafate liquid medicine terbinafine 250 mg tab cam ciplox legal us best place to buy digoxin cefixime prescription antibiotic generic what is the best drugstore foundation for coverage getting emsam in australia what is menosan drugs mentat uk brand name cefadroxil not generic online generic brahmi underactive thyroid medication lose weight safe prednisone no prescription best price alesse will alesse birth control make me gain weight can evista cause weight gain generic isoniazid switzerland craigslist usa jobs order phexin tablets buy prilosec with no rx buy tetracycline without a prescription pharmacy one amman 7th circle buy generic proscar online no prescription generic uk paypal unisom diovan medication for high blood pressure craigslist new york city sublet sinequan 100mg buy femcare tablets side effects of lipothin what is the drug clomid used for where to buy pulmicort drugs online health canada imitrex atarax no prescription canada cefixime gonorrhea cdc cheap calan uk is generic shallaki effective what does synthroid atarax syrup india buy cialis professional without a script albendazole dose for cattle online lisinopril hctz 20-25 kamagra soft dosage too high switching from zoloft to prozac anxiety over the counter benfotiamine acheter midamor acai juice coupons metoclopramide weight gain best site get ginette-35 different brand pills mexican pharmacy no prescription furosemide buy desyrel online no prescription united states where to buy chloromycetin in canada safely best online pharmacy generic cozaar zofran with no rx ophthacare roche precio argentina nizoral 20mg /g will allegra cause weight gain where to buy cytotec in manila 2011 ordering acivir canada buy abilify for daily use where can i buy cialis from cheap viagra for sale in uk buying tretinoin 0,05 brand viagra buy online india cephalexin low dose birth control buy leukeran tablets online american ginseng root keftab shelf life to buy prednisolone drug generic lexapro drug in fr pharmacy doxycycline hyclate 100 mg buy online korean ginseng chinese medicine how to purchase viagra soft lopressor in the uk comprar himcolin original rumalaya forte online ordering advair diskus asthma medicine buy online uk cheap lamisil costco pharmacy relafen price healthcare alliance rxrelief pharmacy discount card scam buy large lithium polymer batteries fotos culturismo fitness how to take atarax mg elocon cream australia generic uk paypal keftab duphalac dry grossesse can lanoxin tablets be crushed how much will albendazole cost where can i get some zoloft keftab order by phone what does estrace do were to buy promet with codeine finax best price lipitor over the counter uk over the counter stromectol kamagra gold on line purchase buy cialis 10mg uk ponstel online pay paypal where can i buy retin what does flonase do for your can you buy acivir pills freeware generic effexor xr safe cheap stromectol sale uk flomax cost in canada buy viagra super active online without prescription sustiva spain zithromax precio mexico where to buy cheap generic cialis soft side effects of hyzaar what is phenergan medication cabergoline sex yasmin pill reviews strattera price rite aid periactin weight gain side effects high dose olanzapine for treatment refractory schizophrenia when is singulair generic retino a cream benefits is it illegal to order generic atorlip-10 non prescription sominex purchase generic acai prednisone medication buy generic motrin online with prescription finpecia approved by fda where to buy clomid forum how to use lady era prilosec otc + canada + price paroxetine from india suprax su"spansiyon 100 mg/5 ml 100 ml sinequan from usa pharmacy anafranil online price side effects of doxazosin mesylate 2 mg buy viagra in hong kong what is the function of the posterior parietal lobe como comprar paxil cheap canadian viagra plus no prescription vasodilan doctors online how to make lean with just promethazine pills retino-a cream 0,025 medication where can i buy bactrim over the counter e' preciso receita para comprar viagra em portugal diovan limited india online painkillers no prescription accutane medication classification what are the side effects of metformin 500mg cost of claravis at walgreens order pilex online best saw palmetto reviews buy albuterol sulfate nebulizer solution generic cialis super active safe buy cialis 5 mg uk indian tenormin cordarone to buy from europe buy lexapro perth australia seroquel buy usa generic biaxin overnite shipping buy actos prescription cheap order imitrex pill como comprar livros em portugues na amazon rogaine 2 to buy in england bayer 2011 revenue acai tablets for sale actoplus met 30/1000 is a prescription required for an epipen in canada cialis discounts codes generic cialis deutschland hyaluronic acid better than collagen viagra professional coupon code calan order on web codeine promethazine australia is acai berry safe to take with other medications where do i buy prazosin prednisone dose pack schedule high blood pressure medication uk metformin online store buy pyridium in uk is exelon legal in uk brand name ginette-35 online buy diakof mg comprar celadrin original en madrid where to buy betoptic atorlip-20 in croatia allegra side effects adults weight gain zentel 400 mg+side effects bactrim acne can you buy ventolin over the counter uk prescription ambien walrus penegra brands india most reliable place to buy anacin online how much is generic lipitor fast carafate deleviery buy erythromycin tablets india revatio from india low price aciphex uk micardis blood pressure pills levitra plus medicine cheap viagra cheap nimotop venta cialis generico en mexico coversyl plus medication where to buy cystone ointment atarax cost bactrim drug store online strattera pills buy kamagra birth control online mexico cheap claritin free delivery clomid in italia is thyroid medication free in uk exelon price history buy alesse fast shipping styplon tablet best place to buy female viagra atrovent medicine online avodart shortage 2012 is there a generic avodart carafate dose in horses indian generics online tadacip zovirax for daily use canada order etodolac online with visa myambutol generic wikipedia drugs levitra professional for sale online post cycle therapy ceftin what is the drug ciprofloxacin prescribed for decadron dosage administration dutas 5mg tablets avalide medicine online furosemide to buy in the canada without a prescription seroquel sales 2009 ponstel for men sale in uk low carbon alliance stirling footprint calan on line for sale no script where can i buy alli pill coversyl arginine 5 mg generic trandate no prescription clomiphene success stories 2010 differin price without insurance provera online overnight buy cialis 20mg online lasuna drug class how much propecia to take indocin canadian pharmacy over the counter substitute for citalopram avodart online ordering buy cystone mexican pharmacies genarice viagra master card quinine tablets to buy is aspirin generic or brand name buying metoclopramide in manchester donde comprar tadalis sx purchase seroquel on line in uk teva ramipril alcohol cheapest nitrofurantoin tablets uk where can i buy chloramphenicol drops what is the dosage for aleve where can i get some coumadin what is the generic for lotensin xalatan to buy in england hyaluronic acid pharmacy order viagra prijs apotheek belgie canadian drugs plavix cost of zovirax cream accutane overnight mastercard online no prescription lithium tablets for depression best price advair diskus 250 50 liquid sildenafil citrate dosage purchase carafate on line in usa hyzaar low dose birth control lexapro 5mg actoplus met xr 15 mg/1000 mg mometasone furoate ointment used eczema get rumalaya gel las vegas zyrtec mail order pravachol and alcohol betnovate c usage clonidine dose where to buy tetracycline drugs online cialis professional uk buy post op hysterectomy pain meds how to get cytoxan on line side effects of taking zantac long term wo kann ich viagra kaufen in der schweiz viagra soft spain what is wellbutrin xl 150 mg. used for tadapox sale ed drugs 100mg delivery buy cheap cymbalta homeopathic medicines online uk ciprofloxacino cinfa 500 what is promethazine codeine used for what does levothroid pill look like to buy celadrin buy actonel mg online indinavir billig kaufen where purchase reminyl canadian lexapro tablet baclofen dose alcohol wellbutrin xl experiences order canada discount actos list of tesco stores selling ciplox hydroxyzine uk otc how much is malegra fxt tablets prevacid lawsuit settlements buy remeron usa zofran iv dose range buy antibiotics online recommended sites there generic available zyprexa american skelaxin liquid uroxatral review canadian pharmacy trazodone tricor global services prednisone 10 mg 12 day dose pack can buy aldactone online can you buy zovirax online acyclovir prescriptions generic alphagan online without atorvastatin order flomax alternatives natural what does crestor do with cholesterol cymbalta reviews for neuropathy liv 52 spain digoxin weight gain what does synthroid do generic lasix 100 mg over counter exelon midamor for sale australia terbinafine generic for lamisil low cost chloroquine watch aap ki adalat episodes online buy levaquin canada mobic available over counter cephalexin suspension rxlist is speman legal in uk where to buy cefixime with visa cheapest ralista tablets uk premarin shopping medication aide online courses most trusted pharmacy online manly cooper pharma doxycycline acne long results buy requip with paypal where can i get legit nolvadex best reliable canadian pharmacy buy pariet usa prilosec dosage 20 mg twice a day prozac vs xanax anxiety buy adhd medication online uk cost of effexor xr 75mg brand amoxil generic wikipedia drugs is it safe to order antabuse mirapex delivery non prescription retino-a cream 0,025 blue lotus pills anxiety buy toradol online usa medrol prescription drug beconase aq with american express moduretic italiano amaryl online bestellen lipitor sales volume order benicar overnight micronase tablets uses where to imuran where to buy differin online india can you online buy benicar hct elavil 100mg cheap cheap rogaine 2 free delivery does sarafem make you gain weight atrovent online usa losartan hydrochlorothiazide tablets buy vermox in canada augmentin medication class list of tesco stores selling nitroglycerin what is the drug zyprexa used for actos coupons 2011 tadacip over the counter uk abilify by mail aripoprazole pharmacy claritin direction on how to use it buy cipro 5 aldactone online overnight delivery better than levitra professional bactrim forte dosage for gonorrhea generic from alesse cyklokapron on line no script vytorin order by phone buy floxin greece effexor xr order canada is mail order acai safe how to use prednisolone eye drops Purchase metoclopramide 10mg original himplasia online buy nootropil usa pill rx health order elavil products tetracycline order in the us lithium bond order safe to buy generic cipro from usa online pharmacy no prescription needed levaquin iv acyclovir dose cleocin 300 mg uses ranbaxy viagra products on line tri sprintec generic version ortho tri cyclen aurochem laboratories i pvt ltd getting ciplox in australia what is the difference between minocycline and minocycline hcl how to buy viagra in california what does tetracycline inhibit can you buy digoxin online free coupon for stromectol can i order aciclovir online silagra (cipla brand) abilify and cough medicine side effects how to get erythromycin in australia best prices genuine viagra insurance factory insurance ordering aldactone pharmacy virgin atlantic american express online login antibiotics in pregnancy category a haridra online now discount remeron on line for sale no script cymbalta tablets medication why is my thyroid medication not working generic name for propecia abana dose buy cephalexin fosamax coupons is viagra safe with alcohol fertomid new zealand exelon without prescription miami is it illegal to order generic cozaar estrace usa sale how to take bupropion to stop smoking is there a shortage of aldactone where can you find alligators in florida levaquin 1000 mg daily pastillas para abortar cytotec como se usa buy cafergot bulk promethazine theoclate in pregnancy uroxatral generic alternative sinequan pharmacy prices list generic for avalide 300mg 25mg zovirax now bactrim 40mg-200mg 5ml dosis erythromycin without prescriptio generic remeron safe delivery member posts buy diclofenac buy cheap genuine cialis buy alli online canada no prescription use ayurslim coupon online capoten with no rx canadian alliance party logo can i order benicar no prescription in the usa doxycycline dose for cats suppliers of medrol in us where to buy ginseng root in nyc aspirin costume over the counter ventolin puffer pyridium boots alavert pharmacy prilosec generic reviews lamictal tablets for purchase buy kamagra online next day delivery generic what does the generic zofran pill look like where to buy nizagara with visa what is indinavir where to buy prednisolone with echeck do i need a prescription for pravachol rumalaya forte generic reviews buy citalopram line buy cheap bystolic generic zantac no prescription cost comparison buy stromectol pharmacy what is hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg brand levitra pills drugstore
Tuesday September 23 , 2014
Font Size
   

Ancient and Modern Roots of Drama Therapy

Share

INTRODUCTION:

The word drama comes from ancient Greek and means quite literally “things done” (Harrison, 1913). Drama therapy is, in simplest terms, the use of action techniques, particularly role play, drama games, improvisation, puppetry, masks, and theatrical performance, in the service of behavior change and personal growth. It has its roots in religion, theatre, education, social action, and mental health/therapy. The National Association for Drama Therapy, created for promoting the field of drama therapy in the United States, was organized recently in 1979, as were many of the other creative arts therapy organizations, but drama therapy has been around much longer than that!

ANCIENT ROOTS: RELIGION AND THEATRE:

Evidence in archeological records suggests that early humans began to make art – paintings, sculpture, music, dance, and drama – during the Upper Paleolithic period about 45,000-35,000 years ago. Experts marvel at the suddenness with which the arts burst onto the human scene and tie it to the beginnings of symbolic, metaphoric thought (Pfeiffer, 1982; Mithen, 1996; Lewis-Williams, 2002). Simultaneous with this creative explosion, shamans and priests began utilizing the arts in their healing and religious practices. The origins of the arts and religion seem to be intertwined because the arts naturally provided effective symbolic ways to express abstract religious ideas. Dance and drama, in particular, were extremely useful in rites to create sympathetic and contagious magic as well as to embody myths and rituals. Details about these ancient origins are sketchy, but many scholars have hypothesized about those origins, based on surviving cave paintings, artifacts, myths, and even on extrapolating from contemporary shamanistic practices (Pfeiffer, 1982; Lewis-Williams, 2002). Greek scholar and cultural anthropologist Jane Ellen Harrison, for instance, theorizes that early art developed directly out of ritual from mimesis or imitation of an experience and became an abstract representation or metaphor which was then available for magical use (Harrison, 1913). However, without a written record providing direct testimony, we cannot know exactly what those ancient practices entailed and how those ancient humans understood their ceremonies.

Eventually, the art form of theatre developed out of religious rites and rituals. Western theatre history usually begins its formal accounts with ancient Greek theatre. Religious festivals dedicated to Dionysus, god of fertility and revelry, featured theatrical competitions in which plays brought mythology to life for the community. The Great Dionysia, held in Athens in early spring, featured tragedies, comedies, and satyr plays written by citizen-poets and performed by citizen-actors for the entire populace. During a choral presentation at one of these festivals around 560 B.C. Thespis, the first actor, stepped away from the chorus to take on an individual character for the first time and theatre, as we know it, was born (Brockett, 1968).

The first written theoretical account of drama therapy can be found in connection with Greek theatre. In his Poetics, Aristotle says the function of tragedy is to induce catharsis – a release of deep feelings (specifically pity and fear) to purge the senses and the souls of the spectators (Aristotle, trans. 1954). These cathartic feelings are experienced empathically for the characters in the play by the individuals watching the performance and they share that theatrical/cathartic experience with others in the audience magnifying the release and allowing for an adjustment in the community’s attitude as a whole. According to Aristotle, drama’s purpose is not primarily for education or entertainment, but to release harmful emotions which will lead to harmony and healing in the community (Boal, 1985).

In his analysis of Aristotle’s work, Brazilian director Augusto Boal (1985) suggests that this cathartic release helped preserve the status quo in Greek society, for a populace that is content and at peace will not rebel against the rulers in power. Aristotle’s ideas about catharsis have influenced many psychotherapy models from Freudian psychoanalysis onward by focusing psychotherapeutic work on the idea that insight into troubling emotional issues and healing occurs only after the patient has achieved catharsis. This process is disputed as unrealistic and unnecessary by cognitive-behavioral therapists, rational-emotive therapists, and others who feel that catharsis and insight are not enough to induce healing or change, that new thoughts and behaviors must be learned to replace the old, and that change doesn’t automatically follow emotional release and understanding.

MENTAL HEALTH ROOTS:

Ancient physicians recognized the value of drama as a therapeutic tool. Soranus, a second century Roman, believed that the way to cure mentally ill patients was to put them into peaceful surroundings and have them read, discuss, and participate in the production of plays in order to create order in their thinking and offset their depression (Cockerham, 1991). In the fifth century, another Roman Caelius Aurelius took this a step farther. He states in his treatise On Acute Diseases and on Chronic Diseases that in order to achieve emotional balance, patients should go to the theatre and watch a performance that expresses the emotion opposite to their condition. For depression, see a comedy; for mania or hysteria, see a tragedy (Jones, 1996).

For the most part, however, people with mental illness were not treated by taking trips to the theatre or by reading and performing plays; they were locked away in horrible prisons and asylums where they were either forgotten or attempts were made to cure them through exorcisms and treatments which could only be described as torture. Not until the late18th century, with the beginning of the “Moral Treatment” movement, did some mental institutions provide occupational, horticultural, and artistic activities as part of their treatment regimen (Cockerham, 1991; Whitaker, 2001). This approach to treatment continued in enlightened institutions in Europe and America into the 20th century and opened the door to the practice of drama therapy.

The groundwork for inclusion of the art therapies into psychiatric hospitals in the U.S. was laid after World War I. Talk therapy and medical interventions did nothing to help veterans recover from what at the time was called “shell-shock” (now called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), the emotional response to traumatic combat experience. However, the arts did help. In the early 20’s and 30’s, inclusion of the arts in hospital programming was expanded. Occupational therapists at many psychiatric hospitals began involving patients in the rehearsal and performance of plays, pageants, and puppet shows. Interestingly, the genre of plays performed was limited to comedy, so as not to upset the patients (Phillips, 1994).

T. D. Noble, a psychiatrist at Sheppard-Pratt Hospital in the Baltimore, MD area, noticed that patients in his psychotherapy sessions who had acted in the hospital plays were able to understand and identify emotions better than other patients, could link their present emotional state and behavior to their earlier trauma more easily, and were able to experiment with alternative modes of behavior with more flexibility (Phillips, 1994). He wrote in a 1933 issue of Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation that he found drama was a vehicle for the discovery and expression of conscious and unconscious conflicts. Playing other characters in the plays, he noted, helped patients release repressed emotions so that they could later deal with them directly in therapy. He also observed that drama was a useful diversion and encouraged socialization among patients (Phillips, 1994).

SOCIAL ROOTS OF DRAMA THERAPY:

The social action root of drama therapy can be traced to Hull House and other sites of the settlement movement. Jane Addams opened Hull House in 1889 to serve as a socializing, civilizing, connective, and reforming force for the immigrant, working-class neighborhood of the Nineteenth Ward of Chicago’s West Side (Jackson, 2001). She set up a series of what she termed “Lines of Activity:” courses, lectures, and group experiences which would bring culture, education, social connection, and change to the community living in proximity to the settlement house. The most popular activities were the drama clubs which provided socialization, a creative outlet, and an exciting group experience which led to a product shared with others (Jackson, 2001). Young people would join drama clubs at the age of seven or eight and found so much meaning in their work together that they would remain in them until they were in their 30’s and 40’s. The Little Theatre or community theatre movement grew, in part, out of the enthusiasm for amateur performance that the Hull House drama clubs created (Hecht, 1991).

Movement and recreational groups were run for children at Hull House by Neva Boyd (Jackson, 2001). She used games and improvisation to teach language skills, problem-solving, self-confidence and social skills. Boyd became a sociology and theatre professor at the University of Chicago and is one of the founders of the Recreational Therapy and Educational Drama movements in the U.S. Her student Viola Spolin, learned Boyd’s techniques and developed them further, writing the widely-studied Improvisation for the Theatre, from which many theatre games and improvisation techniques used in American theatre training and in drama therapy originate (Spolin, 1963).

AMERICAN FORE-RUNNERS IN THE FIELD OF DRAMA THERAPY:

The surge in the growth of educational theatre in the U.S. can be traced to this source and to the educational theatre program at Northwestern University in Chicago which was helmed by Winifred Ward. Many founders of the National Association for Drama Therapy began as creative drama teachers. Drama therapists like Eleanor Irwin, Rosilyn Wilder, Naida Weisberg, Rose Pavlow, Jan Goodrich, and Patricia Sternberg discovered the therapeutic benefits of process drama through their work with young children and extended it to other populations in an intentional manner.

Lewis Barbato is credited with first using the term drama therapy in print in an article he wrote in 1945 for the Journal of Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy and Florsheim published a book in which she discussed utilizing the enactment of scripted plays as therapy in 1945 (Casson, 2004). However, Gertrud Schattner, a Viennese actress, is credited with popularizing the term drama therapy and providing the impetus to create a national organization in the U.S (Reiter, 1996). In order to avoid Hitler’s invasion of Austria, Gertrud fled to Switzerland for safety during the Second World War on a temporary visa. When it expired, she used her acting skills to have herself admitted to a mental hospital as a patient, convincing the doctors that she was suicidal. She learned a great deal about mental illness from “hiding out” in the hospital (Reiter, 1996). Gertrud ended up marrying Edward Schattner, a psychiatrist working with refugees and survivors of Nazi concentration camps in a Swiss tuberculosis sanitarium. While he was able to make his patients’ bodies healthier, he had little success healing their utter desperation, depression, and despair. Edward asked Gertrud to come in to the sanitarium to do drama, storytelling, and poetry with the patients in a recreational vein. Through their participation in drama, they began to come back to life. Gertrud recognized what she was doing was something special and out of the ordinary – she called it drama therapy (Schattner, 1981; Reiter, 1996).

After the war the Schattners moved to the U.S. and Gertrud practiced drama therapy in a number of social service organizations and psychiatric hospitals in the New York City area. She taught the first drama therapy courses at Turtle Bay Music Center on Long Island (Reiter, 1996). In the early 1970’s, she and drama educator Richard Courtney began approaching other people who were doing similar work to collaborate on a publication which became Drama In Therapy, Volume One: Children and Volume Two: Adults, the first books in print about drama therapy (Schattner & Courtney, 1981). She and a number of those other pioneers, including David Read Johnson, Eleanor Irwin, Marilyn Richman, Rosilyn Wilder, Naida Weisberg, Ramon Gordon, Jan Goodrich, Barbara Sandberg, and others formed the National Association for Drama Therapy in 1979 in order to promote the training and education of drama therapists, to establish standards for registry, and to promote the field (Finneran, 1999).

EUROPEAN ROOTS OF DRAMA THERAPY:

At the same time drama therapy was developing in Great Britain. The British put the two words together: dramatherapy. Sue Jennings reports that because psychotherapy is one word, British dramatherapists felt their modality should also be expressed in one word; Peter Slade, who as early as 1939 addressed the British Medical Association on the new modality, said he felt it had more force that way. (Jones, 1996).

British origins can be connected to the educational drama work of Peter Slade in the 1930’s in an arts center in Worchester. He wrote Child Drama in 1954, the first book to connect drama with helping children develop emotional and physical control, confidence, observation skills, and abilities to be tolerant and considerate of others. In 1959, Slade began calling what he and others were doing dramatherapy in a pamphlet entitled “Dramatherapy as an Aid to Becoming a Person.” (Jones, 1996). Brian Way developed similar ideas about the essential growth drama offers participants in his classic Development through Drama, which collected ideas and methods from his work in educational drama from the 40’s through the mid-60’s (Way, 1967). Dorothy Heathcote used drama in education for teaching purposes, but also as a way for children to develop insight, understanding, and empathy. In 1964 Marian Lindkvist created the first dramatherapy training program, the Sesame Institute, which focused on drama and movement as forms of learning and expression, particularly in work with children with special needs. Peter Slade worked with her to deepen their method through psychological training.
Another early pioneer was Sue Jennings who began doing drama at a psychiatric hospital when she was a young drama student and called the work she was doing “remedial drama” (Jones, 1996). In the 1970’s, she completed a Ph.D. in anthropology which focused on ritual and started referring to her work as “dramatherapy.” (Jones, 1996). The British Association for Dramatherapists (BADth) was created in 1976 to promote the education and credentialing of dramatherapists in the UK (Jones, 1996). It is interesting to note that this is just three years before the NADT was formed in the U.S. While the British and the American forms of drama therapy developed separately and have different theoretical emphases, they truly did develop along parallel lines and in a similar pattern.

Drama therapy also has a history in Russia and the Netherlands. Phil Jones, in Drama as Therapy: Theatre as Living talks about two Russian drama therapists who were influenced strongly by the work of Stanislavky (Jones, 1996). Nicholai Evreinov, a Russian director, created a method he called Theatrotherapy which focused on the internal and psychological processes involved in acting to create healing and well-being in participants and help them re-frame or re-imagine their difficulties into a new way of life. Vladimir Iljine also created a Therapeutic Theatre in the years before the Russian Revolution (1908-1917) using theatre games and improvisational training to encourage flexibility, spontaneity, expressiveness, and communication abilities. He used his methods with individuals and groups in many situations and locations: psychiatric patients, people with emotional problems, and actors in the theatre (Jones, 1996).

After the Revolution there were others who carried on this work. One, Nikolai Sergevich Govorov, developed a theatrical storytelling technique which he used to help psychiatric patients and others develop social connections, self-confidence, and socially appropriate behavior (A. Martin, personal communication, June 2, 2004). He felt that much of mental health depended on people having the ability to socialize and support each other morally and humanly. Govorov was very aware of Evreinov’s work and consciously built on it and other Western therapeutic theatre work (A. Martin, personal communication, June 2, 2004). His work developed between the1950’s and the 1970’s.

One other country in which drama therapy currently thrives is the Netherlands. In the late 40’s, Activity Leaders involved with social welfare and youth care in community and residential care centers began using the arts and play for self-expression and social interaction (Jones, 1996). This gave rise to The Netherlands Society for Creative ExpressiveTherapy in the 1960s; a branch for dramatherapists was formed in 1981. There are, perhaps, more drama therapists per capita in the Netherlands than anywhere else in the world!

OTHER INFLUENCES:

Two other individuals should be mentioned as important influences on drama therapy. The first is Constantin Stanislavky. Before Stanislavsky, theatre was not considered a psychological art. His work at the Moscow Art Theatre (1900-1938) set the stage, not just for actor training in the 20th century, but also for the use of his methods as tools for connecting with the emotional mind by other educators and psychotherapy professionals (Blair, 2002). His intuitive utilization of the imagination (the brain’s natural ability to create imagery and metaphor), the unconscious (as a gateway to connecting with true emotion), and given circumstances (embodying the actor in the physical and psychological details of the moment in which the character is) mesh with research that has been done on neurology and brain processes in the past fifteen years. The body-mind is essentially one, as Antonio Damasio explains in Descartes’ Error and The Feeling of What Happens, and as Stanislavsky’s methods demonstrate (Blair, 2002). Stanislavsky’s methods deeply influenced not just the Russian drama therapists, but also theatre artists from the West, most notably in our case, Viola Spolin and the American theatre educators who developed into the first drama therapists.

The other critical individual who must be mentioned is Jacob Levy Moreno, the father of psychodrama, sociodrama, and sociometry (Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000). Moreno, born in Bucharest in 1889, grew up and studied medicine in Vienna. There, as an attending physician at a refugee camp at Mitterndorf at the end of World War I, he developed sociometry, a method of assessing of the social choices made within a group by its members and then intervening in a systemic way to create social change (Garcia & Buchanan in Johnson & Lewis, 2000). He applied these new measurements and intervention tools to create order and improve living conditions in the displaced residents’ lives. It worked! Later he started what amounted to a support group for Viennese prostitutes, using role play and improvisation to help them find solutions to social problems with which they were faced.

From 1920-24 Moreno led The Theatre of Spontaneity, an improvisational theatre in which professional actors created spontaneous drama based on current events. This work developed into sociodrama and later psychodrama as the focus changed from the community and social issues to personal and psychological issues of individuals. Moreno emigrated to the U.S. in 1925 where he continued developing his methods with the general public through the Impromptu Theatre at Carnegie Hall and by consulting at prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and residential treatment centers. In these latter institutions he helped individuals who had serious personal, emotional or social problems learn how to function better (Blatner, 2000). The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama (ASGPP) was founded in 1942. Many of the pioneers of creative arts therapy movements, experiential therapy, and traditional talk therapy came to his sessions and were influenced by his work, including Marion Chase, Eric Berne, Arthur Janov, and Fritz Perls (Blatner, 2000; Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000).

Psychodrama and drama therapy purists would argue that Moreno’s work is not a subset of drama therapy, but there is a truth to the idea that Moreno was the “first drama therapist,” as he identified role and social relationships as important therapeutic issues through his writing and work with clients long before American or British drama therapists became organized or began publishing (Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000). My view of psychodrama is that it is part of the drama therapy toolbox, and, therefore, its story rightfully belongs as part of drama therapy history.

CURRENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Currently, there are two Master degree programs in the U.S. and one in Canada approved by NADT for training drama therapists: New York University in New York City, California Institute for Integral Studies in San Francisco, and Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. NADT has also developed an alternative training program through which students can work with a Board Certified Trainer/Mentor to create an individualized program of study in drama therapy in conjunction with a Masters degree in theatre, social work, counseling, special education, or another discipline related to drama therapy. Being an interdisciplinary field, training in drama therapy requires courses in psychology/therapy, drama therapy, and other creative arts therapy as well as internships in which students practice their skills and receive supervision from experienced professional drama therapists and other credentialed mental health professionals.

The professional credential for drama therapists in the U.S. and Canada is the R.D.T. (Registered Drama Therapist) which can be applied for after one has finished an appropriate Masters degree, the approved drama therapy and psychology coursework, an 800 hour drama therapy internship, a minimum of 500 hours of theatre experience and a minimum of 1,500 hours of professional hours working as a drama therapist. Most registered drama therapists have much more than a minimum of 500 hours of theatre when they discover drama therapy since most begin as theatre artists or educators who discover the healing aspects of drama through their theatre training and work. However, more and more social workers, counselors, and special educators are discovering that talk therapy is not enough; that there is a need for “things done” in therapy for insight and change to be effective for clients. As this happens, drama therapists with theatre origins are being joined by drama therapists with clinical mental health origins who have discovered the magic and intrinsic healing value of drama. Among the ranks of drama therapy students, there are even ministers, priests, and rabbis who have discovered the healing power of drama therapy. Perhaps this is an indication that we are rounding the bend to complete the circle to the place where our drama therapy roots began.

INTERACTIVE DRAMA THERAPY TIMELINE:  Mouse over the bullets to reveal more details.

 


 

Bibliography:

Aristotle. (1954). Aristotle’s rhetoric and poetics. NY: The Modern Library.

Blair, R. (2002). Reconsidering Stanislavsky: Feeling, feminism, and the actor. Theatre Topics. (12), 2, 177-190.

Blatner, A. (2000). Foundations of psychodrama. NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Brockett, O. (1968). History of the theatre. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Boal, A. (1985). Theatre of the oppressed. NY: Theatre Communications Group.

Casson, J. Tribute to Peter Slade, read at Peter Slade’s funeral, June 30, 2004.

Cockerham, W. C. (2000). Sociology of mental disorder. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon Books.

Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. San Diego: Harcourt, Inc.

Finneran, L. (1999). Beginnings: Letters to and from Gert. Dramascope. (19), 2, 1, 18-20.

Gordon, R. (1999). Beginnings: Cell Block Theatre. Dramascope. (19), 1, 1, 13, 26.

Harrison, J. E. (1913). Ancient art and ritual. Bath, England: Moonraker Press.

Hecht, S. J. (1991). Edith de Nancrede at Hull House: Theatre programs for youth.Youth Theatre Journal. (6), 1, 3-10.

Jackson, S. (2001). Lines of activity: Performance, historiography, Hull-House domesticity. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Jones, P. (1996). Drama as therapy: Theatre as living. London: Routledge.

Landy, R. (1997). Drama therapy – The state of the art. The Arts in Psychotherapy. (24), 1, 5-15.

Lewis P. & Johnson D. R. (Eds.). (2000). Current approaches in drama therapy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Lewis-Williams, D. (2002). The mind in the cave: Consciousness and the origins of art. London: Thames & Hudson.

Mithen, S. (1996). The prehistory of the mind: The cognitive origins of art, religion and science. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd.

Pfeiffer, J.E. (1982). The creative explosion: An inquiry into the origins of art and religion. New York: Harper & Row.

Philips, M. E. (1996). The use of drama and puppetry in occupational therapy during the 1920’s and 1930’s. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy (50), 3, 229- 233.

Reiter, S. (1996). Honoring Gert Schattner. Dramascope (14), 1, 1, 3.

Schattner, G. & Courtney, R. (1981). Drama in therapy, Volume One: Children, NY: Drama Book Specialists.

Slade, P. (1954). Child drama. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Slade, P. (1959). Dramatherapy as an aid to becoming a person. Pamphlet, Guild of Pastoral Psychology.

Spolin, V. (1963). Improvisation for the theatre. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.

Stanislavsky, C. (1936). An actor prepares. New York: Theatre Arts Books.

Way, B. (1967). Development through drama. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.

Whitaker, R. (2001). Mad in America: Bad science, bad medicine, and the enduring mistreatment of the mentally ill. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.