will 10mg of paxil cause weight gain online pharmacy overnight shipping lioresal bonus pills sildenafil citrate 50mg side effects order alesse no prescription drugs arimidex best price tretinoin cream 0.05 buy atarax 10mg medrol without insurance is there a drug comparative to pletal rhinocort aqua nasal spray dosage crestor over the counter australia generic wellbutrin xl 300mg zebeta paypal elimite generic 2013 drugs suppliers of rogaine 5 in us mentat ds syrup in croatia myth antibiotics alcohol buy colchicine 0.6 mg testosterone therapy for men diovan hct coupon generic indocin uk paypal cheap dostinex free delivery online tretinoin 0,025 purchase quibron-t prix en pharmacie en france buy levitra from canada januvia with paypal payment generic lasix canada walmart generic pharmacy price list oral cipro dosage for uti prazosin medicine oder mg tablets of coversyl can you buy aldactone generic prescription what is sildenafil mygra how much will benicar cost viagra professional where to get fluoxetine 20 mg dose hyzaar no prescription drugs cheap purchase robaxin online no prescription doxycycline 100 mg 500 ct tinidazole 500 mg levothroid recall costco pharmacy fucidin price non prescription viagra professional uroxatral italiano buy imitrex without rx nitrofurantoin manufacturer india viagra pfizer rezeptfrei kaufen trileptal to buy in england pain meds no prescription online discount on lexapro prandin 1 mg tablets the sons of sol pharmacy house seroxat and weight gain severe anxiety symptoms cabana buy cheap generic vytorin refills arthritis diet exercise shipping prescription drugs from canada to us tv tropes questionable content buy levaquin 80 mg online hydrochlorothiazide with paypal payment cialis las vegas chloroquine legal us buy capoten online pharmacy can diltiazem cd capsules be opened tegretol retard 200mg side effects prilosec side effects weight gain coming off depakote bipolar buy aygestin paypal indian jelly viagra online cheap zyloprim uk next day delivery leiebil vigra flyplass flights to vigra norway bupropion uk nhs dilantin express canada us pharmacies online that sell minocycline top 10 online caverta sites buy eldepryl visa costco pharmacy duphalac price snovitra super power from canada levaquin delivery doxycycline 100mg dosage for sinusitis wellbutrin sale duetact medication side effects elocon cream new zealand is bystolic a generic medication shatavari order by phone skelaxin dosage muscle relaxer omnicef express canada lisinopril 20 mg hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg buy cipro online with no prescription zovirax looking for order erection packs 1 levitra brand xenical for sale lloyds pharmacy alli tablets haldol in the uk now where to buy non prescription viagra ranitidine uk next day delivery diovan 160 shortage how to import acivir pills estrace in india can you buy kamagra in ireland generic cialis kamagra chewable italiano eczema cream betnovate sarafem overnight methotrexate cost canada cephalexin shortage allegra house paihia new zealand acheter tamoxifen orlistat reviews forum xenical lamisil tablets from buy aciphex over the counter usa dutas tablet sale can i order diarex online can you take malegra fxt daily lamisil cream coupons i have a prescription for orlistat where can i get it purchase amoxil brand levitra drug oversea nolvadex gyno dosage cheap pills kamagra 100mg online acheter xenical pas cher ordering soft cheap viagra prescription best generic adalat sites side effects of ringworm medication in dogs micardis pills how to use code red 7 spray cytotec delivery uk discount depakote er buy crestor 10 mg rosuvastatin generic chloromycetin usa pharmacy buy toprol xl boots pharmacy online generic bupron sr over counter mentat ds syrup triamcinolone cream dosage buy cheap pills org pill viagra elavil pills online in the canada what is prometrium used for can you only get brahmi on prescription color of zocor pills erection packs 11 discount pharmacy online top pharmacy schools worldwide robaxin trusted online drug stores in canada motrin 800 mg prices can order viagra jelly online buy online confido generic roxithromycin now co uk metoclopramide online where are mentats in fallout new vegas viagra soft refills online generic vpxl canadian alliance for development initiatives and projects cadip online pharmacy no prescription needed suprax lerk sildenafil reviews requip generic overnight aldactone online saturday delivery how long does it take to quit on champix hydrochlorothiazide where to buy quiero comprar cytotec chile where to buy zyprexa drugs online indian generics online diamox cefixime for men sale in uk can you buy haldol online generic topamax usa does lipitor make you gain weight levothyroxine side effects in men over the counter cephalexin etodolac 400 mg tablet tar where do i ceftin in usa prednisone canada pain pills online no prescription silagra 50 prix biaxin side effects reviews viagra without prescription in the usa buy cialis with paypal order amaryl from canada without prescription buy yasmin 50 discount levitra online buy actoplus met capsules citalopram medication side effects sinequan tablets online buy zyrtec children betnovate canadian pharmacy purchase cheap zovirax online order pharmacy buy triamcinolone acetonide cream online buy kamagra 100mg online kamagra tablets wiki motilium without a prescription from india canadian alliance of british pensioners bc branch ventolin overdose in children vermox medicine children best price for viagra plus roxithromycin prices usa how long does it take for lexapro to kick in online prescriptions from doctors buy monistat online diflucan clomid without prescriptions australia i pill prazosin website minipress 5mg can you get colchicine over the counter washington low income housing alliance movement normal dose of bactrim for uti no rx unisom online doxycycline without rx paypal allegra salem nh existe generico do cipro xr the chepest wellbutrin sr order coumadin on line usa order abilify 11 mg zofran no prescription canada prograf medication assistance existe nexium generico where cane i buy viagra over the counter robaxin 750 prices best pharmacy prices cialis nitrofurantoin tablets for purchase generic for zyvox doxycycline 100mg tablets side effects brand viagra birth control online mexico can you order extendaquin missed seroquel dose liv 52 mg buy cheap nizagara usa buy orlistat amazon best place buy kamagra uk india cardizem price which uk site to buy combivent buy dipyridamole canada buy viagra plus in australia buying arimidex using paypal propecia medicine reviews cadastro para comprar yasmin com desconto viagra sublingual tablets purchase on line proventil hfa generic available over the counter coumadin finasteride prostate side effects top 10 online maxaman sites uk version of dapoxetine can i buy voltaren over the counter how to write albuterol nebulizer prescription what is pantoprazole side effects generic avalide 150 12.5 buy rumalaya no prescription mexican pharmacy no prescription nymphomax bystolic side effects joint pain buy remeron without rx what are the side effects of quinine legal buy nizoral online canada can we trust voveran online valtrex in mexico aa car insurance telmisartan hydrochlorothiazide- mechanism of action methotrexate tablets psoriasis viagra farmacia sin receta xalatan price in canada cialis with no rx what is lipitor medicine for diakof prix en pharmacie en france xalatan latanoprost ophthalmic solution what is valtrex prescribed for online celebrex india american entocort altace 2.5 mg para que sirve buy v-gel perth australia what kind of pills are called blues kamagra soft delivery clomiphene clomid side effects viagra gel for ladies citalopram no prescription reviews altace pharmacy coupons indian zithromax praziquantel tablets india where purchase prograf desyrel to buy in the canada without a prescription vasodilan from usa pharmacy best weight loss pills for women over 50 coming off metformin pregnant cheap menosan sale uk diltiazem generic cheap costs tadalafil online paypal how often to take dostinex cialis 5 mg daily side effects pilex drugstore.com levaquin usa today can i order viagra online in australia generic endep uk paypal amitriptyline online no prescription elavil losartan side effects nhs lesofat orlistat reviews can you buy cialis over the counter in the usa discount imitrex mg dilantin for men in usa atrovent western australia 100 mg lopressor iv zyvox price viagra generic mastercard augmentin dose australia topamax mail order ventolin hfa patient instructions online silagra with no prescription aciclovir crema precio espaa reviews on acai berry and colon cleanse diet tulasi telugu songs online order vpxl online uk silagra new zealand online cost of triamterene hctz generic for cymbalta 60 mg best anti anxiety medication for long term use buy coumadin pills girl scout cookies pay by check micronase from india allopurinol order buy brand sumycin best place buy cds online australia long term viagra usage lov cost finast order shallaki overnight prednisona 50 mg precio generic celexa prices aleve now voltaren pharmacy medicine wellbutrin 20mg tab cefixime rxlist septilin dosage instructions revia rxlist buy requip without rx there generic voltaren gel how well does viagra work for young men viagra effects on girls how to use venlor the online drugstore diabecon buy yasmin new zealand online prevacid legal us buy valtrex tablets india nitroglycerin discount medications accutane online uk why was nizoral shampoo discontinued ralista rx cost of lexapro at cvs buy strattera atomoxetine buy kamagra fast online purchasing prograf online uk flagyl 500mg for sale nirvana lithium tab guitar no prescription adalat non prescription cialis sublingual what class of drugs is bactroban aspirin pharmacy only mircette in the uk clozaril where can i buy it cheap zyprexa atypical antipsychotic genuine etodolac best price where is game of thrones filmed at buy furosemide online us no prescription buy acai max cleanse canada flonase price at walmart levitra super active to purchase without a prescription do you need doctor;s prescription viagra kamagra mg buy codeine promethazine order online long term side effects of not taking synthroid date for generic viagra levitra professional generic for is depakote available over the counter cabgolin limited india allegra shopping low price nizagara uk wellbutrin from usa side effects of crestor and lipitor prednisolone discount voucher tadalafil 20 mg sublingual tablets online pharmacy diabetic supplies buy levothyroxine uk online pharmacy gasex pill shortage order liv 120 mg how much does ginseng cost in china proventil mg canada wellbutrin sr online pay paypal erythromycin refills meclizine spain over counter mail-order yasmin dosage of iv flagyl online metoclopramide india buy pulmicort hong kong order order avapro online in usa can you only get plavix on prescription chloroquine tablets on line to buy lamictal odt prices generic rogaine 5 no prescription viagra onlineeu can you take desyrel daily plendil legal us history of cipla pharmaceutical company arimidex discount code what is the generic name for zyban vegetal vigra manufacturers what is fosamax for what does diakof clomid steroids for sale indian allegra red angel side effects of metformin during pregnancy where to buy premarin cream online para q se usa el medrol lexapro mais barato allegra online forum generic cialis resources ceftin antibiotic side effects cialis-viagra trial pack indian generics online parlodel casodex generic approved viagra soft now buy procardia xl 60 where to buy tinidazole drugs online ralista in the uk serpina maximum dosage how to by vytorin online long time side effects cefadroxil what does tricor treat citalopram canadian pharmacy canada celexa price acai on line for sale no script side effects of diovan hct 320/12.5 prescription xenical slimming pills cardizem online forum prednisone over counter substitute buy canada no prescription for mobic what is neurontin 300 mg side effects use of metronidazole in pregnancy ventolin need prescription pills give you instant erection pewdiepie youtube stats flonase nasal spray order purinethol online bestellen buy levothyroxine synthetic thyroxine t4 evista overnight pharmacy order calcium carbonate cheap what is flagyl used to treat in humans ortho cyclen generic brand luvox dosage for ocd pilex generic cheap costs topamax mg buy ver revista tu online lisinopril overnight delivery arimidex tablets from buy janssen cilag jobs buy brand cialis online from usa sumycin medicine online generic zaditor us buy antivert in singapore hydrochlorothiazide medicine news can you buy vpxl over the counter in germany how much is revatio tablets buy levothyroxine 400 mcg uk what is amitriptyline for cats nabp vipps certification silagra 50 mg price in india inderal cost in canada yagara no script abilify without food medication discount ortho tri-cyclen mg pfizer free viagra can i get valtrex over the counter xalatan tablets side effects dulcolax express canada mirtazapine sleep walking citalopram reviews and dosage estrace pills ovulation best online store buy viagra best viagra for women in india how long should lansoprazole take to work relafen limited india allopurinol 100mg price over the counter augmentin where to buy high dose xenical pills sambazon acai juice shelf life illegal viagra sales uk amaryl from india emsam medication interactions bactroban 2 cream 15gm avapro dosing information most common side effects of doxycycline lamisil order on web flomax generic date when buyers of terramycin canada how much does citalopram cost the nhs order artane 120 mg viagra 1800 number; buy brand motilium augmentin online buying best place to buy prandin nizoral tablets tinea versicolor purchase actos 30 mg long time side effects amitriptyline cialis jelly generic where to get clomid in uk abilify without a script online low cost prazosin ordering no prescription how many years to take femara vega 100 tablets side effects order diclofenac tablets buy cytotec online from mexico what color are aleve pills how to take crestor what time buy aciclovir with lipitor italiano buy sumycin acne cheapest price mail order generic zestoretic how to take suprax 400 mg lasuna tablets the vitamin shoppe coupons aristocort discount is zoloft available in canada much do alli pills cost wellbutrin without prescription canada combivent from canadian pharmacy canada medshop fosamax alternative osteoporosis where can i purchase carafate minocycline shoppers drug mart acheter pas cher speman buy cheap kamagra in uk glucophage 500mg during pregnancy can you order maxalt vente de zestril au quebec canadian alliance of dance artists bc columbia chapter zithromax rx dosage buy cheap atarax online generic hyzaar ds 100 mg 25 mg buy ophthacare online reviews shuddha guggulu prices canadian drugstore citalopram can you order phenergan hayfever cheap genuine torsemide online luvox dose range pharmacy has best price procardia seroquel pills side effects purchase generic prometrium generic vs brand name depakote er actoplus met xr package insert buy inderal 40mg does alli work over the counter glaxosmithkline 100 mg betapace lioresal online order quiero comprar anacin does pyridium help interstitial cystitis buy sominex online with mastercard sirve el cytotec generico max crestor dose cialis coupon for daily use hcg and nolvadex for pct buy percocet online no prescription needed cialis and levitra differences how to buy diabecon canada pharmacies online that sell hydrochlorothiazide can you buy singulair cheap prescription ephedraxin with american express how to order zovirax over the counter xenical orlistat purchase coreg doxycycl hyc for uti sale stromectol atacand online in usa how to take synthroid levothyroxine where to buy over the counter inhalers propecia dose recommendation buy confidor tablets finpecia tablets can u treat chlamydia with amoxicillin nitrofurantoin pregnancy bnf tadacip overnight pharmacy street value of 100 mg neurontin altace western australia lotensin for sale uk acheter baclofen en france water pills side effects over counter viagra super active shop net cheap retin-a 0,025 buy online lipitor card participating pharmacies buy cafergot generic generic tofranil paypal pilex india pariet 10 mg rabeprazole sodium overseas pharmacy no prescription lanoxin mircette online usa mail order generic tofranil how to import prazosin order metoclopramide 120 mg puedo quedar embarazada usando depo provera buy atarax online no rx within usa what is mobicart cialis sublingual suppliers overseas methotrexate calculator for ectopic pregnancy side effects of oral medication for ringworm ordering cephalexin canada donde comprar pildora yasmin should i buy diflucan online when will lipitor generics be available cheap amoxil online what is meclizine good for prezzo del viagra in italia what is tamoxifen for breast cancer american ginseng traditional chinese medicine revista for sale de aruba rosuvastatin dosage instructions drugstore chain europe effexor xr price australia is there a drug comparative to dutas pharmacy mexico floxin buy rogaine 5 usa buy cafergot tablets online elimite cream no prescription accutane canada prescription orlistat non perscription countries can we trust hyzaar online ordering levitra brand online pill store is clomid available in mexico order femara online purchasing retin-a ge online uk colospa 10 mg femcare canada head office anxiety uk forum buy propranolol brand list of tesco stores selling zofran levitra plus online in us purchase alli on line in canada differin over counter side effects of benicar hct 40 25 mg printable alli diet pill coupon can you get pregnant on augmentin pariet online canadian tetracycline 100 review generic advair diskus buy canada obagi tretinoin .1 vs .05 doxycycline hyclate shelf life retail retin a online no prescription lotrisone woldwide shipping buy fertomid pills what is isotretinoin accutane sarafem limited india where to get coreg buy kytril mg online canadian floxin tablet prandin mg tablet voltaren pills with dutas drugs for sale como comprar viagra en espaa steroid weight gain decadron cost of diovan at costco most common side effects of nitroglycerin indian generics online kamagra oral jelly buy online levitra usa purchase bactrim in australia malegra oral jelly effexor xr online pharmacies with out prescription cipro limited india primatene mist inhaler mexico buy online prescription us pharmacy prozac no rx order pulmicort cheap reglan where to get order flagyl online no prescription with a amex liv miami bottle service cost can you buy cordarone over the counter canadian pharmacy strattera atomoxetine hydrochloride xenical forum 2012 buying effexor xr from canada no prescription periactin australia motilium side effects breastfeeding discount rx sunglasses online vpxl on line in the canada ampicillin shoppers drug mart lipothin to buy from europe buy ayurslim uk is nexium over the counter medication amitriptyline delivery brand viagra india pharmacy metformin glibenclamide spc pharmacy stores in london tretinoin uk boots colchicine gout medication buy cheap amaryl toprol xl sales discount metformin tablets what is it used for us pharmacy online renagel triamcinolone injection voltaren cream information cheapest viagra jelly to buy comprar tamoxifeno espaa cleocin shortage calcium carbonate magnesium hydroxide chewable tablets to buy ralista what drug category is moduretic what is voltaren 50mg used for generic name for aleve tadalafil 20mg reviews toprol side effects in men ordering yasmin canada erythromycin prescription information where to buy liv 52 uk combivent tablets online arava institute bike ride order purchase dostinex free delivery safe keppra buy finax cheap price most common side effects of norvasc viagra generica kern is there a generic drug for actos what is the usual dosage for keflex triamcinolone acetonide cream usp .1 side effects get myambutol las vegas buy lincocin online reviews plavix coupons printable how long does it take for trazodone to kick in for sleep meclizine dosage for motion sickness fda simvastatin contraindications buy maxalt 10mg bupropion dosage 300 mg cost of skelaxin without insurance flagyl metronidazole 200mg diltiazem shopping thyroxine hormone function fastest celebrex uk delivery zantac online cheap buy cheap aripiprazole abilify online orlistat 60 what is it neurontin brands india buy lithium orotate supplements himcocid australia price can you get lozol buy singulair in india online buy aleve in australia cheapest atacand singulair generic in 2012 onde comprar xenical generico buy gyne-lotrimin greece original lipothin online bactrim ds for uti dose order augmentin 375 mg phd europe pharmacy what is acai berry and green tea good for lipitor online from usa buy effexor xr pills in the india buy serevent in singapore how much ginseng extract to take do you need rx elocon procardia price glucophage for sale we transfer iphone app free online doctor prescription prednisolone 5mg for sale bupron sr online overnight shipping mexican nitroglycerin phenergan with paypal payment pharmacies online cheap arimidex celadrin india valacyclovir hydrochloride tablets 1000 mg aleve best price what is the correct dosage of unisom tenormin daily use reviews legal psychedelic drugs for sale buy crestor mg online buy colchicine with canadian pharmacy over the counter medicine that acts as protonix tegretol delivery london toradol im deltoid acai express canada what is vasodilan tablets can drink alcohol while medrol dose pack purchase amoxil cheap penicillin antibiotic how much benadryl can you give a 100 lb dog mexican pharmacy no prescription allegra buy trazodone online no prescription us where can you buy mentats in new vegas can i take viagra and drink alcohol buy hydrocortisone cream acheter acai paris westhroid vs synthroid cual es el precio de viagra en mexico best site to buy advair diskus can you take 20mg of zyrtec ginseng from usa pharmacy erectile dysfunction herbal treatment options isoptin in croatia ampicillin dosage for strep throat trazodone generic wikipedia drugs no rx finast online is flonase over the counter or prescription buy domperidone no prescription calcium carbonate dose maximum alli uk buy online where is the series broadchurch filmed lamisil commercials order altace generic fish cycline benzaclin discount coupon donde comprar ginseng siberiano purchase accutane 400 mg elavil side effects uk prescription medication online no prescription asacol next day zanaflex dose information clonidine patch side effects drugs from canada safe when did glucophage go generic american academy of pediatrics benadryl dosage ordering viagra professional prescription pill shop zestril in canada can order levothroid online buy seroflo with paypal cephalexin for dogs for sale cold md rapid-tabs reviews buy advair diskus online india ortho tri cyclen with no rx my finax coupons can you order diakof canadian drugs can i buy clozaril in canada buy kamagra 100mg australia getting pilex in australia toradol italiano buy nexium online at canada pharmacy ranitidine syrup price online pharmacy no prescription needed diclofenac gel low cost overnight accutane pfizer pharmaceuticals stock price tamoxifen next day delivery order acticin overnight buy lady era new zealand online non generic lanoxin bactroban ointment side effects isoptin 40 mg posologia tetracycline generic form como tomar amsa fast orlistat where can i buy celebrex in canada the online drugstore brahmi proscar canada drug store betapace echeck buy etodolac mg online ibuprofen and paracetamol overdose viagra hong kong mannings cozaar 50 mg side effects metoclopramide australia price nike air max 2012 mens uk is it legal to buy baclofen online buy accutane low cheap price speman express canada cialis sublingual sublingual dosage how to use luvox florida mircette buy toradol visa actos 30 mg tabletas what does tetracycline do to microbes expired zithromax z-pak order crestor lowest price where is the best place to buy viagra in uk non persciption omnicef lithium medicine what are adalat retard tablets for buy seroflo hong kong breathing what is the drug flagyl used for lisinopril purchase in canada no prescription buy exelon online with mastercard lidocaine hydrochloride jelly abilify pills effects cefadroxil in croatia drug market order albenza free coupon for estrace purchase generic entocort provera tablets and pregnancy compare prices avalide cheap calan us order generic alli diet pill available south africa health canada naprosyn lamictal drug store online buy kamagra fast shipping side effects of ventolin inhaler in pregnancy legal requirements emergency sale order ventolin allopurinol low dose birth control order proscar cheap kytril now co uk glucophage over counter walgreens himcocid discount voucher laxatives and water pills for weight loss cheap l-tryptophan uk prazosin legal us indocin tablets for sale cheap flovent sale uk buy pills at walmart alli cost mentat ds syrup tablets price pcos clomid pregnancy success asthma triggers in toddlers cost of tetracycline suppliers of remeron in us reglan prescription only lowest price viagra generic evista canada alesse online no prescription i want to pay some viagra super active overnight erection packs 11 viagra how to get amaryl drug prograf online ordering side effects of coreg cr nexium tablets purchase on line cozaar for discount can you get metoclopramide accutane acne worse first robaxin online pharmacy lyme disease treatment dogs doxycycline dose bupropion sr side effects weight loss methocarbamol tablets buy benicar tablets online buy abilify 100mg online can i order apcalis sx no prescription in the usa cheapest fincar in the uk atorvastatin side effects fatigue levitra mg no prescription donde comprar viagra para mujer cheap acne order accutane purchase amoxil pills flomax doctors online use albendazole coupon online generic from benadryl seroquel medication sleep buy endep pills online phenergan express canada prilosec next day delivery original antivert online prometrium 200 mg capsule low price bentyl uk where to get baclofen uroxatral lawsuit canada is ciprofloxacin available over the counter mircette for men sale in uk sinequan express canada maxaman prices how much benadryl should i give my 100 lb dog altace indian pharmacy buy what are skelaxin pills reverse warfarin overdose prednisolone 10 mg cost cheap ophthacare buy online new alliance records chunks generic amoxil paypal is there a drug comparative to aristocort western drug phenergan best generic yagara sites non prescriptin synthroid canadian alliance terminals inc bc canada elmbridge way warfarin drug interactions list how to get free chlamydia medication viagra plus sale order online drug shop where do i voltaren in uk how to take elimite international legal rx medications toradol 10 mg ketorolac metformin reviews for men free vytorin coupons canadian effexor xr ampicillin for men in usa cyklokapron online in usa acquisto blopress sicuro online where to buy yasmin with visa maxalt ordering no prescription buy offers tetracycline pharmacy arimidex echeck discount atorlip 20 purchase cialis sublingual in us therapeutic dose of elavil for depression side effects of voltaren 25 accutane didn;t work for me now what comprar rhinocort original what birth control is like yasmin buy pet medicine online canada buy generic levitra from canada online pharmacy us no prescription lasix paypal buy celebrex pills buy lipitor online forum prednisolone usa cvs prices order hyaluronic acid seroxat side effects hair loss achat viagra pfizer en ligne xenical online forum lamisil cost australia requip starter pack discontinued accredited online pharmacy school programs brand geriforte buy best drugstore makeup remover cleanser where can i buy levitra professional in canada vitamin shoppe nyc hours canadian pharmacies cialis buy soft generic viagra over the counter diflucan dosage too much thyroxine in pregnancy buy sinequan online from usa what is aricept taken for walgreens pharmacy amsterdam ny buy imitrex 5 online pharmacy uk levitra plus amoxil capsules 250mg dosage children buy bupropion online usa cyproheptadine syrup for weight gain online no prescription uk for atarax aqua ban water pills reviews cafergot online from canada comprar viagra barato compare prices liposafe drugstore makeup brands list best way to lose weight fast diet pills risperdal order online german new medicine back pain how to use estrace cream applicator purchase advair diskus cheap seroxat paroxetine side effects how long to take domperidone for breastfeeding generic indocin switzerland discover card ad can you buy ponstel over the counter in germany generic coreg usa pharmacy buy hyzaar 80 mg online how much is prevacid at walmart vente de erythromycin au quebec low price azulfidine uk buy omnicef 20 prograf nowicki safe orlistat buy cvs pharmacy in montreal canada side effects of levothyroxine tablets alli phone orders asacol medication side effects diovan hct price doxycycl hyc 100mg dosage where do i aldactone in india yasmin online forum buy elimite online without prescription furosemide drug in canada pharmacy cost of alli starter pack ralista for sale uk manufacturer accordo rx canada buy doxycycline paypal zofran dosage recommended genuine advair diskus 100mg doxycycline dosage uk prevacid over the counter uk order coversyl lowest price lopid drug information can you get tetracycline over the counter best pharmacy to order triamterene can you buy cialis professional in ireland 20mg generic form diamox pharmacy has best price voveran sr xenical with no perscription cafergot online kaufen famvir overnight shipping cheap voveran sr medication side effects where could i buy buspar without prescription children;s motrin generic motilium phone orders diovan tablets purchase on line allopurinol user reviews where can i order advair diskus lisinopril line no prescription canadian drugs safety ti 24 mp3 media fire brand advair diskus pills buy generic promethazine with bonus comprar neurontin buy generic levlen with bonus what does generic skelaxin look like over the counter pain medication that does not contain aspirin brand cialis non perscription countries bactrim forte costo buy zyprexa hong kong buy prescription drugs without insurance propecia canadian online zestoretic delivery purchase otc drugs online redustat sirve para hombres aleve for sale philippines levitra professional pills buy online bupropion common dosage fml forte shop net buy pyridium pills lipitor annual us sales pill identifier with pictures valium can you buy maxaman seroflo inhaler for kids atorvastatin patent uk flagyl syrup dose kamagra chewable billig kaufen buy haridra online cheap zithromax medicinenet keftab next day shipping compazine suppository cost betneval pommade composition ciplactin and dexona dosage getting cialis jelly in australia effects high doses gabapentin side effects of decadron in toddlers buy prednisone tablets australia where to buy lithium cell batteries order estrace estradiol 2mg can order finast canada how long does it take for baclofen to start working buy finpecia online us depakote online in us toprol xl tablets online viagra tablets online australia where can i purchase wellbutrin sr tramadol no prescription overseas pharmacy no prescription bentyl what is aspirin for in pregnancy best price for real cialis sublingual 77 canada pharmacy scams discount levaquin mg roxithromycin soft capsules diabecon with paypal payment nexium iv drip dose what is finasteride taken for hyaluronic acid online usa no prescription acquisto caverta sicuro online what symptoms does zyprexa treat dosis ciprofloxacina infeccion urinaria get birth control prescription without exam what is nitroglycerin pills used for tadalis sx supplier in uk best site to buy mycelex-g order canada allopurinol without diclofenac dosering 50 mg lipitor cheap australia pharmacy what is naproxen side effects list of different types of drugs cheapest cialis price much does cialis cost canada legal buy retino-a cream 0,05 online canada benadryl one or two pills most common side effects of medrol dose pack fluoxetine hcl 20mg cap robaxin pills online in the mexico propecia tablets boots topamax no prescription overnight apidra vs novolog vs humalog forzest sale online pill store femara tablets cancer cialis sublingual sale tadalafil cheapest buy lexapro online no prescription united states menosan pills azithromycin dosage chlamydia purchase grifulvin v lowest price amoxicillin dosage bnf best site to buy artane levitra professional barato voli low cost cipro drugstore makeup brands that don;t test on animals low cost overnight estrace common side effects of flomax strattera for sale usa order pletal cheap cheap calan forcat holidays menorca fastest anafranil uk delivery combivent inhaler instructions family guy canadian summer lowest price female cialis isoniazid new zealand cuantas pastillas cytotec para abortar non prescription chloramphenicol eve mentat online generic sumycin can you buy viagra without prescriptions in canada no rx trileptal online zovirax from usa amantadine discount buy drugs how much does a prescription of flagyl cost ciplox pill canadian what is methotrexate used for in pregnancy lamisil mexico pharmacy best pharmacy to order zoloft there generic form pulmicort cheap cialis online canada all types viagra professional pills cheapest capoten in the uk keppra shelf life canada drugs lithium with prescription no prescription sustiva sale buy trazodone pills in the canada aceon online bestellen cozaar overnight mg 50mg etodolac used to get high buy prevacid solutabs eye medication prednisolone what is robaxin 500 used for levitra plus order by phone buy seroquel xr 50mg cabgolin cheap best cytoxan prices phexin mg buy claritin from canada rabeprazole online usa 33 drugs online cheap eulexin sale uk shop provera online cost of motrin ib kamagra oral jelly 100 buy generic moduretic online with prescription omnicef generic equivalent mirtazapine 45 mg weight gain what is chloroquine chemoprophylaxis atenolol lisinopril combination cuanto sale dulcolax buy danazol 15mg online levaquin western australia glyset online coupon code buy cheap zyloprim pills best male enhancement drug market free viagara betnovate 20 mg buy wellbutrin online india valtrex order online singulair granules coupon rhinocort shopping buy cheap kamagra uk ajanta best price rocaltrol wellbutrin xl cutting pills how to get zoloft without insurance cheap abilify 20mg canada how much is cialis with insurance vytorin dosage levels atorlip paypal allopurinol online prescription needed difference between viagra viagra professional india pharmacies online that sell fucidin generic endep no prescription discount lipitor 20 pfizer what drug category is dutas india vs australia live score ball by ball glucophage metformina bystolic 5 mg tablet metronidazole gel uk b.pharmacy jobs in us buy vpxl singapore alli simpson age the online drugstore zyloprim is levitra plus legal in uk order lamisil online no prescription with a amex ayurslim delivery tadalis sx overseas mexican pharmacy no prescription erexor buying celebrex in manchester is it illegal to order generic benfotiamine next day canadian express drugs hoodia gordonii pills australia sustiva paypal proscar hair loss treatment for women cialis sample pack advair diskus tablets uses buy minipress online from usa atorlip-10 prices cvs nimotop reviews buy flagyl discount benzac discount medications celebrex rx coupon amlodipine besylate tablets side effects avapro hct mims mycelex-g side effects uk seroquel class action lawsuit settlement lamisil where can i buy it fluconazole interactions with birth control what does the drug phenergan do side effects methotrexate australia price levitra coupon code comparatif prix cialis 20 ventolin medication where to buy a cosa serve la pomata fucidin trandate mg tablet generic imitrex usa pharmacy acyclovir 200 mg uses online forum order alavert overnight delivery buy apcalis sx 100mg online generic name for viagra mycoxafloppin can antivert be bought over the counter order orlistat online with visa med cab amoxil buy medicines online uk synthroid 100 mg daily acai dose meds order order submitted aristocort pharmacy prince gold korean red ginseng reviews triamterene mg canada cost of minocycline er buy advair diskus online canada what is the correct dosage of aleve cipro by mail tretinoin 0.025 cream how to use ampicillin medication where to buy order colchicine no prescription tokio hotel hospital viagra non persciption levitra super active us online pharmacy no prescription fosamax duetact over counter uk how to buy dipyridamole side effects of antibiotics metronidazole metformin sales us donde puedo comprar lexapro 10 mg en madrid indian generics online imitrex where to get betnovate pct atarax without a script hydrochlorothiazide without script endep free shipping is mevacor available over the counter buy retin-a 0,05 australia how to buy tretinoin 0,025 chloroquine tablets price nolvadex generico online synthroid cheap no prescription how to buy forzest in london order depakote 250mg generic methotrexate safe kamagra chewable online usa no prescription where can i get nizoral shampoo benicar weight gain best generic benicar sites rumalaya gel express canada can you take bactroban daily cefixime comprare pham drugs augmentin online no prescription member side effects of keppra rogaine 2 where to get overseas pharmacy no prescription nolvadex low dose aspirin purchase plavix online mexico cost of prednisone australia russian drugs buy kamagra oral jelly online what is cleocin gel for prescription prilosec coupons tulasi video songs online coversyl am 8/5 buying citalopram without prescription albendazole dose buy periactin hong kong related order wellbutrin ordering no prescription best place buy viagra online yahoo answers can you substitute lexapro or celexa canada price effexor xr viagra cialis sample free usa anti inflammatory drug brand names canadian business alliance network inc lopressor sold over counter new cost of viagra in canada cheapest drug deltasone cheap plendil 10 mg is allopurinol legal in uk apo-metronidazole 500mg capsule celebrex overnight rx canada donde comprar ginseng en lima accredited pharmacy technician online programs xipen med in english cheapest branded drugs actos canada overnight delivery actonel online in us elocon shortage 2012 para que se usa el cephalexin 500mg thalidomide trust news cheap genuine provera online what is lexapro 20 mg used for buy alesse for daily use digoxin drug classification atacand uk online acheter amaryllis canada pharmacy online lexapro generic for femara 2.5 mg mentat ds syrup usa sale tamsulosin hcl 0.4mg cap side effects order abilify 30 mg generic is staxyn available in canada seroflo prix en pharmacie en france original duphalac online trazodone annual sales chloroquine canada head office tegretol limited india buy cheap xanax online no prescription prednisone for dogs side effects panting can you buy dapoxetine online how to use acai berry powder safe place order lamisil protonix shortage cialis sales 2016 buy pilex for daily use buy motrin in singapore buy prilosec usa vpxl prescription zoloft generic costco buying cardizem for dogs cephalexin tablets usp buy rumalaya gel online amazon retin-a ge over counter uk tadacip us companies only cheap ortho tri-cyclen sale uk average wellbutrin dose ordering vpxl canada drugs aspirin with prescription best place buy roxithromycin cialis soft cost comparison cheapest ventolin inhalers cialis daily generic best over the counter high blood pressure medicine cefixime 10 mg lotrisone western australia can you buy proventil canadian pharmacy anti buy accutane no prescription online where to buy orlistat online mexico remeron cost comparison health canada retin-a 0,025 zyrtec drugs online purchases iv antibiotics for uti cefixime mail order actoplus met discount card buy bupropion without a script what is uroxatral used to treat hydrochlorothiazide medication information med cab brand levitra drugs cost buy aricept sinequan generic for hyzaar with no perscription where to buy actos cheap albendazole on line no script z pack recall 2012 overnight without buy amaryl differin without insurance allopurinol italiano lioresal online in usa buy brand wellbutrin comprar aldactone original buy midamor online from usa levitra plus pas cher italie altace online usa no prescription top ten us pharmacy schools discount retin a gel confido spain dramamine como se usa buy levaquin tablets online generic cialis pills triamterene 5mg tablets intrathecal methotrexate side effects singulair lawsuit settlements where can i buy bactrim online without a prescription is maxalt available in india viagra rezeptfrei bestellen erfahrungen canadian lopid tablet best pharmacy price cialis extreme peptide tamoxifen citrate reviews cialis tablet strength buy maxalt in india online best drugstore translucent powder for oily skin buyers of hytrin canada hydroxyzine wellbutrin sr 40 mg pharmacy canada drug store colchicine dose for gout bactroban capsules all types nitrofurantoin pills mexican pharmacy no prescription eurax danazol trade name india buy aricept cheapest online pharmacy doxycycline com au lisinopril brand generic name buy levlen with e check azithromycin 250mg tablets children erythromycin shortage carafate sold over counter generic tricor 2012 toradol injection how long to take effect is allegra better than alavert zyprexa daily use reviews where can i buy plain alligator clips medicine amitriptyline tablets elavil prevacid prescription cost phenamax canada prescription anxiety pills names saw palmetto tablets from buy order cordarone online uk order non generic zofran online pharmacy propecia compare roxithromycin and birth control pills how to use alli to lose weight buy erythromycin online pharmacy get fluoxetine las vegas buy cefixime 40 order lopid cefixime lowest price topamax drug in usa pharmacy heavy panting in dogs on prednisone combivent in usa acivir pills for daily use canada orlistat reviews weight loss what do reglan pills look like medco express scripts prior authorization online maxaman purchase geriforte syrup where to get keppra italiano sildenafil viagra finpecia usa sale purchase avodart mg how much is benicar tablets cheap viagra sublingual uk acheter pas cher promethazine doxycycline 10 mg /ml comprar pyridium portugal canadian pharmacy online prescription drugs buy prevacid low cheap price micronase reviews for men buy sumycin lowest price elocon online in usa purchasing biaxin online uk voveran sr no prrescription comprar lanoxin online baytril max noah discount canadian pharmacy propranolol buy zyloprim in india online how to import methotrexate claravis 30 mg review online pharmacies no prescription oxycodone order pulmicort tablets safe cialis professional buy italian pharmacists threaten to stop viagra sales inderal price us cod xanax overnight delivery buy trazodone online reviews allopurinol without zenegra daily use reviews coumadin spain over counter alavert pills sweat topamax no prescription compare prices aurochem cialis dog knee arthritis treatment lisinopril dosage forms lexapro canada drugs buy cheap capoten pills order acyclovir uk doxycycline side effects itchy rash to buy deltasone discounts can you buy benemid over the counter cialis daily 5 mg online lariam uk buy baclofen online kaufen cytoxan low dose birth control brand cialis new zealand buy chloramphenicol 40 lioresal medication side effects imitrex maximum dosage per month tadacip 20 der firma cipla natural viagra melbourne pravachol 40 mg 30 tablet culturismo natural buying lotrisone using paypal buy provera online at canada pharmacy order proscar 1mg hydrocortisone acetate injection where viramune inhouse pharmacy co uk skin care retin altace by mail order we are david bailey campaign what is nitroglycerin tablets allopurinol prescription medication doctor citalopram generic wikipedia drugs nexium discount voucher danazol itp patients kamagra soft shopping legal buy lopid online canada paxil over counter meds requip xl package insert diclofenac compared to vicodin express drugs trinidad can i orders ciprofloxacin fom mecico fucidin ointment 2 acne buy viagra jelly in singapore mail-order wellbutrin sr compare prices coumadin cheapest price for singulair cost of yasmin birth control side effects of speman methotrexate tablets usp 2.5 mg western drug nootropil cialis daily use price drugs order generic tinidazole ordering how long does levitra last prescription cefadroxil cheap crestor vs lipitor vs vytorin pravachol 10 mg side effects purchasing vasotec online clomid uk online pharmacy what is doxycycline capsules 100mg used for comprar cialis barato sin receta celexa for sale australia get online birth control prescription benicar online prescription thyroid medication synthroid side effects ordering low dose benicar alli weight loss dose paroxetine shelf life flagyl no prescription fedex ups us online pharmacy no prescription prazosin buy revatio hong kong xenical without a prescription from us lowest price vermox cheap allinclusive holidays in june buy ditropan 200 Purchase celebrex 200 mg online ventolin usa no prescription best depression medication 2013 lasix over the counter india delivery aceon no prescription overnight phone in order for unisom nizoral non prescription strength buy aleve greece buy cytotec in australia india rumalaya price mail order roxithromycin ou acheter livre d or pour mariage is real pharmacy buy anti-anxiety pills online ponstel lawsuit canada long no alcohol after flagyl noroxin where can i buy buy nizoral online canada protonix medication pantoprazole doctor cipro 1000 mg crestor generic mexico kytril no prescription reviews buying vasodilan abilify tablets 150 mg benicar side effects joint pain generic name for betnovate is canadian health&care mall legitimate buy lady era mg buy online trileptal generic viagra no prescription uk online pharmacy uk version of vytorin abilify india no prescription albendazole pas cher italie acheter aciclovir where can i order lisinopril-hctz 20/12.5 mg buy erythromycin 50 trandate shopping where can i buy benadryl strips where do i buy aciclovir is zovirax legal in uk elavil 25mg tab snovitra super power cost comparison estrace for sale philippines estrace for sale usa uroxatral price india anafranil from usa pharmacy can i get alli evista missed dose baclofen prescription canada lynoral sublingual dosage new generic lexapro reviews what does a keppra pill look like where to buy flagyl in canada bentyl generic dosage cheap acivir pills us prescription online novartis diovan sales patent resources for diltiazem Purchase glucotrol xl 10 mg buy online meds no prescription can you buy aceon online pharmacy cheap como comprar singulair baby what is the medication bactrim ds used for buy orlistat no prescription fast delivery buy septilin online from usa buy valtrex 80 mg online buy allegra fast shipping buy silagra online in india canadian alliance community skelaxin cost comparison prescription reviews on doxazosin elimite shop net minipress tablet sale do you need a prescription for celebrex casodex uk buy plavix for sale philippines american roxithromycin lov cost shallaki tinidazole without prescription canada prednisone oral tablet 10 mg what is amaryllis shinedown how to purchase trazodone birth control pills isoniazid macrolides roaccutane buy viagra in canada legally kamagra london next day delivery domperidone online new zealand what is doxycycline used for in men what is the generic for keppra ocd medication anafranil suppliers of rogaine 2 in us Purchase fluoxetine 20mg canada generic wellbutrin xl reviews sustiva shelf life what do compazine pills look like order amitriptyline without prescription to buy actonel price increase medrol metoclopramide on the internet what is cleocin tablets buy phenergan online usa sinemet discount voucher what does accutane do to the liver use rumalaya forte coupon online flagyl reviews users synthroid class action lawsuit precose non perscription countries buy viagra online cheap with no prescription terramycin not generic
Monday January 26 , 2015
Font Size
   

Ancient and Modern Roots of Drama Therapy

Share

INTRODUCTION:

The word drama comes from ancient Greek and means quite literally “things done” (Harrison, 1913). Drama therapy is, in simplest terms, the use of action techniques, particularly role play, drama games, improvisation, puppetry, masks, and theatrical performance, in the service of behavior change and personal growth. It has its roots in religion, theatre, education, social action, and mental health/therapy. The National Association for Drama Therapy, created for promoting the field of drama therapy in the United States, was organized recently in 1979, as were many of the other creative arts therapy organizations, but drama therapy has been around much longer than that!

ANCIENT ROOTS: RELIGION AND THEATRE:

Evidence in archeological records suggests that early humans began to make art – paintings, sculpture, music, dance, and drama – during the Upper Paleolithic period about 45,000-35,000 years ago. Experts marvel at the suddenness with which the arts burst onto the human scene and tie it to the beginnings of symbolic, metaphoric thought (Pfeiffer, 1982; Mithen, 1996; Lewis-Williams, 2002). Simultaneous with this creative explosion, shamans and priests began utilizing the arts in their healing and religious practices. The origins of the arts and religion seem to be intertwined because the arts naturally provided effective symbolic ways to express abstract religious ideas. Dance and drama, in particular, were extremely useful in rites to create sympathetic and contagious magic as well as to embody myths and rituals. Details about these ancient origins are sketchy, but many scholars have hypothesized about those origins, based on surviving cave paintings, artifacts, myths, and even on extrapolating from contemporary shamanistic practices (Pfeiffer, 1982; Lewis-Williams, 2002). Greek scholar and cultural anthropologist Jane Ellen Harrison, for instance, theorizes that early art developed directly out of ritual from mimesis or imitation of an experience and became an abstract representation or metaphor which was then available for magical use (Harrison, 1913). However, without a written record providing direct testimony, we cannot know exactly what those ancient practices entailed and how those ancient humans understood their ceremonies.

Eventually, the art form of theatre developed out of religious rites and rituals. Western theatre history usually begins its formal accounts with ancient Greek theatre. Religious festivals dedicated to Dionysus, god of fertility and revelry, featured theatrical competitions in which plays brought mythology to life for the community. The Great Dionysia, held in Athens in early spring, featured tragedies, comedies, and satyr plays written by citizen-poets and performed by citizen-actors for the entire populace. During a choral presentation at one of these festivals around 560 B.C. Thespis, the first actor, stepped away from the chorus to take on an individual character for the first time and theatre, as we know it, was born (Brockett, 1968).

The first written theoretical account of drama therapy can be found in connection with Greek theatre. In his Poetics, Aristotle says the function of tragedy is to induce catharsis – a release of deep feelings (specifically pity and fear) to purge the senses and the souls of the spectators (Aristotle, trans. 1954). These cathartic feelings are experienced empathically for the characters in the play by the individuals watching the performance and they share that theatrical/cathartic experience with others in the audience magnifying the release and allowing for an adjustment in the community’s attitude as a whole. According to Aristotle, drama’s purpose is not primarily for education or entertainment, but to release harmful emotions which will lead to harmony and healing in the community (Boal, 1985).

In his analysis of Aristotle’s work, Brazilian director Augusto Boal (1985) suggests that this cathartic release helped preserve the status quo in Greek society, for a populace that is content and at peace will not rebel against the rulers in power. Aristotle’s ideas about catharsis have influenced many psychotherapy models from Freudian psychoanalysis onward by focusing psychotherapeutic work on the idea that insight into troubling emotional issues and healing occurs only after the patient has achieved catharsis. This process is disputed as unrealistic and unnecessary by cognitive-behavioral therapists, rational-emotive therapists, and others who feel that catharsis and insight are not enough to induce healing or change, that new thoughts and behaviors must be learned to replace the old, and that change doesn’t automatically follow emotional release and understanding.

MENTAL HEALTH ROOTS:

Ancient physicians recognized the value of drama as a therapeutic tool. Soranus, a second century Roman, believed that the way to cure mentally ill patients was to put them into peaceful surroundings and have them read, discuss, and participate in the production of plays in order to create order in their thinking and offset their depression (Cockerham, 1991). In the fifth century, another Roman Caelius Aurelius took this a step farther. He states in his treatise On Acute Diseases and on Chronic Diseases that in order to achieve emotional balance, patients should go to the theatre and watch a performance that expresses the emotion opposite to their condition. For depression, see a comedy; for mania or hysteria, see a tragedy (Jones, 1996).

For the most part, however, people with mental illness were not treated by taking trips to the theatre or by reading and performing plays; they were locked away in horrible prisons and asylums where they were either forgotten or attempts were made to cure them through exorcisms and treatments which could only be described as torture. Not until the late18th century, with the beginning of the “Moral Treatment” movement, did some mental institutions provide occupational, horticultural, and artistic activities as part of their treatment regimen (Cockerham, 1991; Whitaker, 2001). This approach to treatment continued in enlightened institutions in Europe and America into the 20th century and opened the door to the practice of drama therapy.

The groundwork for inclusion of the art therapies into psychiatric hospitals in the U.S. was laid after World War I. Talk therapy and medical interventions did nothing to help veterans recover from what at the time was called “shell-shock” (now called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), the emotional response to traumatic combat experience. However, the arts did help. In the early 20’s and 30’s, inclusion of the arts in hospital programming was expanded. Occupational therapists at many psychiatric hospitals began involving patients in the rehearsal and performance of plays, pageants, and puppet shows. Interestingly, the genre of plays performed was limited to comedy, so as not to upset the patients (Phillips, 1994).

T. D. Noble, a psychiatrist at Sheppard-Pratt Hospital in the Baltimore, MD area, noticed that patients in his psychotherapy sessions who had acted in the hospital plays were able to understand and identify emotions better than other patients, could link their present emotional state and behavior to their earlier trauma more easily, and were able to experiment with alternative modes of behavior with more flexibility (Phillips, 1994). He wrote in a 1933 issue of Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation that he found drama was a vehicle for the discovery and expression of conscious and unconscious conflicts. Playing other characters in the plays, he noted, helped patients release repressed emotions so that they could later deal with them directly in therapy. He also observed that drama was a useful diversion and encouraged socialization among patients (Phillips, 1994).

SOCIAL ROOTS OF DRAMA THERAPY:

The social action root of drama therapy can be traced to Hull House and other sites of the settlement movement. Jane Addams opened Hull House in 1889 to serve as a socializing, civilizing, connective, and reforming force for the immigrant, working-class neighborhood of the Nineteenth Ward of Chicago’s West Side (Jackson, 2001). She set up a series of what she termed “Lines of Activity:” courses, lectures, and group experiences which would bring culture, education, social connection, and change to the community living in proximity to the settlement house. The most popular activities were the drama clubs which provided socialization, a creative outlet, and an exciting group experience which led to a product shared with others (Jackson, 2001). Young people would join drama clubs at the age of seven or eight and found so much meaning in their work together that they would remain in them until they were in their 30’s and 40’s. The Little Theatre or community theatre movement grew, in part, out of the enthusiasm for amateur performance that the Hull House drama clubs created (Hecht, 1991).

Movement and recreational groups were run for children at Hull House by Neva Boyd (Jackson, 2001). She used games and improvisation to teach language skills, problem-solving, self-confidence and social skills. Boyd became a sociology and theatre professor at the University of Chicago and is one of the founders of the Recreational Therapy and Educational Drama movements in the U.S. Her student Viola Spolin, learned Boyd’s techniques and developed them further, writing the widely-studied Improvisation for the Theatre, from which many theatre games and improvisation techniques used in American theatre training and in drama therapy originate (Spolin, 1963).

AMERICAN FORE-RUNNERS IN THE FIELD OF DRAMA THERAPY:

The surge in the growth of educational theatre in the U.S. can be traced to this source and to the educational theatre program at Northwestern University in Chicago which was helmed by Winifred Ward. Many founders of the National Association for Drama Therapy began as creative drama teachers. Drama therapists like Eleanor Irwin, Rosilyn Wilder, Naida Weisberg, Rose Pavlow, Jan Goodrich, and Patricia Sternberg discovered the therapeutic benefits of process drama through their work with young children and extended it to other populations in an intentional manner.

Lewis Barbato is credited with first using the term drama therapy in print in an article he wrote in 1945 for the Journal of Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy and Florsheim published a book in which she discussed utilizing the enactment of scripted plays as therapy in 1945 (Casson, 2004). However, Gertrud Schattner, a Viennese actress, is credited with popularizing the term drama therapy and providing the impetus to create a national organization in the U.S (Reiter, 1996). In order to avoid Hitler’s invasion of Austria, Gertrud fled to Switzerland for safety during the Second World War on a temporary visa. When it expired, she used her acting skills to have herself admitted to a mental hospital as a patient, convincing the doctors that she was suicidal. She learned a great deal about mental illness from “hiding out” in the hospital (Reiter, 1996). Gertrud ended up marrying Edward Schattner, a psychiatrist working with refugees and survivors of Nazi concentration camps in a Swiss tuberculosis sanitarium. While he was able to make his patients’ bodies healthier, he had little success healing their utter desperation, depression, and despair. Edward asked Gertrud to come in to the sanitarium to do drama, storytelling, and poetry with the patients in a recreational vein. Through their participation in drama, they began to come back to life. Gertrud recognized what she was doing was something special and out of the ordinary – she called it drama therapy (Schattner, 1981; Reiter, 1996).

After the war the Schattners moved to the U.S. and Gertrud practiced drama therapy in a number of social service organizations and psychiatric hospitals in the New York City area. She taught the first drama therapy courses at Turtle Bay Music Center on Long Island (Reiter, 1996). In the early 1970’s, she and drama educator Richard Courtney began approaching other people who were doing similar work to collaborate on a publication which became Drama In Therapy, Volume One: Children and Volume Two: Adults, the first books in print about drama therapy (Schattner & Courtney, 1981). She and a number of those other pioneers, including David Read Johnson, Eleanor Irwin, Marilyn Richman, Rosilyn Wilder, Naida Weisberg, Ramon Gordon, Jan Goodrich, Barbara Sandberg, and others formed the National Association for Drama Therapy in 1979 in order to promote the training and education of drama therapists, to establish standards for registry, and to promote the field (Finneran, 1999).

EUROPEAN ROOTS OF DRAMA THERAPY:

At the same time drama therapy was developing in Great Britain. The British put the two words together: dramatherapy. Sue Jennings reports that because psychotherapy is one word, British dramatherapists felt their modality should also be expressed in one word; Peter Slade, who as early as 1939 addressed the British Medical Association on the new modality, said he felt it had more force that way. (Jones, 1996).

British origins can be connected to the educational drama work of Peter Slade in the 1930’s in an arts center in Worchester. He wrote Child Drama in 1954, the first book to connect drama with helping children develop emotional and physical control, confidence, observation skills, and abilities to be tolerant and considerate of others. In 1959, Slade began calling what he and others were doing dramatherapy in a pamphlet entitled “Dramatherapy as an Aid to Becoming a Person.” (Jones, 1996). Brian Way developed similar ideas about the essential growth drama offers participants in his classic Development through Drama, which collected ideas and methods from his work in educational drama from the 40’s through the mid-60’s (Way, 1967). Dorothy Heathcote used drama in education for teaching purposes, but also as a way for children to develop insight, understanding, and empathy. In 1964 Marian Lindkvist created the first dramatherapy training program, the Sesame Institute, which focused on drama and movement as forms of learning and expression, particularly in work with children with special needs. Peter Slade worked with her to deepen their method through psychological training.
Another early pioneer was Sue Jennings who began doing drama at a psychiatric hospital when she was a young drama student and called the work she was doing “remedial drama” (Jones, 1996). In the 1970’s, she completed a Ph.D. in anthropology which focused on ritual and started referring to her work as “dramatherapy.” (Jones, 1996). The British Association for Dramatherapists (BADth) was created in 1976 to promote the education and credentialing of dramatherapists in the UK (Jones, 1996). It is interesting to note that this is just three years before the NADT was formed in the U.S. While the British and the American forms of drama therapy developed separately and have different theoretical emphases, they truly did develop along parallel lines and in a similar pattern.

Drama therapy also has a history in Russia and the Netherlands. Phil Jones, in Drama as Therapy: Theatre as Living talks about two Russian drama therapists who were influenced strongly by the work of Stanislavky (Jones, 1996). Nicholai Evreinov, a Russian director, created a method he called Theatrotherapy which focused on the internal and psychological processes involved in acting to create healing and well-being in participants and help them re-frame or re-imagine their difficulties into a new way of life. Vladimir Iljine also created a Therapeutic Theatre in the years before the Russian Revolution (1908-1917) using theatre games and improvisational training to encourage flexibility, spontaneity, expressiveness, and communication abilities. He used his methods with individuals and groups in many situations and locations: psychiatric patients, people with emotional problems, and actors in the theatre (Jones, 1996).

After the Revolution there were others who carried on this work. One, Nikolai Sergevich Govorov, developed a theatrical storytelling technique which he used to help psychiatric patients and others develop social connections, self-confidence, and socially appropriate behavior (A. Martin, personal communication, June 2, 2004). He felt that much of mental health depended on people having the ability to socialize and support each other morally and humanly. Govorov was very aware of Evreinov’s work and consciously built on it and other Western therapeutic theatre work (A. Martin, personal communication, June 2, 2004). His work developed between the1950’s and the 1970’s.

One other country in which drama therapy currently thrives is the Netherlands. In the late 40’s, Activity Leaders involved with social welfare and youth care in community and residential care centers began using the arts and play for self-expression and social interaction (Jones, 1996). This gave rise to The Netherlands Society for Creative ExpressiveTherapy in the 1960s; a branch for dramatherapists was formed in 1981. There are, perhaps, more drama therapists per capita in the Netherlands than anywhere else in the world!

OTHER INFLUENCES:

Two other individuals should be mentioned as important influences on drama therapy. The first is Constantin Stanislavky. Before Stanislavsky, theatre was not considered a psychological art. His work at the Moscow Art Theatre (1900-1938) set the stage, not just for actor training in the 20th century, but also for the use of his methods as tools for connecting with the emotional mind by other educators and psychotherapy professionals (Blair, 2002). His intuitive utilization of the imagination (the brain’s natural ability to create imagery and metaphor), the unconscious (as a gateway to connecting with true emotion), and given circumstances (embodying the actor in the physical and psychological details of the moment in which the character is) mesh with research that has been done on neurology and brain processes in the past fifteen years. The body-mind is essentially one, as Antonio Damasio explains in Descartes’ Error and The Feeling of What Happens, and as Stanislavsky’s methods demonstrate (Blair, 2002). Stanislavsky’s methods deeply influenced not just the Russian drama therapists, but also theatre artists from the West, most notably in our case, Viola Spolin and the American theatre educators who developed into the first drama therapists.

The other critical individual who must be mentioned is Jacob Levy Moreno, the father of psychodrama, sociodrama, and sociometry (Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000). Moreno, born in Bucharest in 1889, grew up and studied medicine in Vienna. There, as an attending physician at a refugee camp at Mitterndorf at the end of World War I, he developed sociometry, a method of assessing of the social choices made within a group by its members and then intervening in a systemic way to create social change (Garcia & Buchanan in Johnson & Lewis, 2000). He applied these new measurements and intervention tools to create order and improve living conditions in the displaced residents’ lives. It worked! Later he started what amounted to a support group for Viennese prostitutes, using role play and improvisation to help them find solutions to social problems with which they were faced.

From 1920-24 Moreno led The Theatre of Spontaneity, an improvisational theatre in which professional actors created spontaneous drama based on current events. This work developed into sociodrama and later psychodrama as the focus changed from the community and social issues to personal and psychological issues of individuals. Moreno emigrated to the U.S. in 1925 where he continued developing his methods with the general public through the Impromptu Theatre at Carnegie Hall and by consulting at prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and residential treatment centers. In these latter institutions he helped individuals who had serious personal, emotional or social problems learn how to function better (Blatner, 2000). The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama (ASGPP) was founded in 1942. Many of the pioneers of creative arts therapy movements, experiential therapy, and traditional talk therapy came to his sessions and were influenced by his work, including Marion Chase, Eric Berne, Arthur Janov, and Fritz Perls (Blatner, 2000; Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000).

Psychodrama and drama therapy purists would argue that Moreno’s work is not a subset of drama therapy, but there is a truth to the idea that Moreno was the “first drama therapist,” as he identified role and social relationships as important therapeutic issues through his writing and work with clients long before American or British drama therapists became organized or began publishing (Johnson in Lewis & Johnson, 2000). My view of psychodrama is that it is part of the drama therapy toolbox, and, therefore, its story rightfully belongs as part of drama therapy history.

CURRENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Currently, there are two Master degree programs in the U.S. and one in Canada approved by NADT for training drama therapists: New York University in New York City, California Institute for Integral Studies in San Francisco, and Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. NADT has also developed an alternative training program through which students can work with a Board Certified Trainer/Mentor to create an individualized program of study in drama therapy in conjunction with a Masters degree in theatre, social work, counseling, special education, or another discipline related to drama therapy. Being an interdisciplinary field, training in drama therapy requires courses in psychology/therapy, drama therapy, and other creative arts therapy as well as internships in which students practice their skills and receive supervision from experienced professional drama therapists and other credentialed mental health professionals.

The professional credential for drama therapists in the U.S. and Canada is the R.D.T. (Registered Drama Therapist) which can be applied for after one has finished an appropriate Masters degree, the approved drama therapy and psychology coursework, an 800 hour drama therapy internship, a minimum of 500 hours of theatre experience and a minimum of 1,500 hours of professional hours working as a drama therapist. Most registered drama therapists have much more than a minimum of 500 hours of theatre when they discover drama therapy since most begin as theatre artists or educators who discover the healing aspects of drama through their theatre training and work. However, more and more social workers, counselors, and special educators are discovering that talk therapy is not enough; that there is a need for “things done” in therapy for insight and change to be effective for clients. As this happens, drama therapists with theatre origins are being joined by drama therapists with clinical mental health origins who have discovered the magic and intrinsic healing value of drama. Among the ranks of drama therapy students, there are even ministers, priests, and rabbis who have discovered the healing power of drama therapy. Perhaps this is an indication that we are rounding the bend to complete the circle to the place where our drama therapy roots began.

INTERACTIVE DRAMA THERAPY TIMELINE:  Mouse over the bullets to reveal more details.

 


 

Bibliography:

Aristotle. (1954). Aristotle’s rhetoric and poetics. NY: The Modern Library.

Blair, R. (2002). Reconsidering Stanislavsky: Feeling, feminism, and the actor. Theatre Topics. (12), 2, 177-190.

Blatner, A. (2000). Foundations of psychodrama. NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Brockett, O. (1968). History of the theatre. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Boal, A. (1985). Theatre of the oppressed. NY: Theatre Communications Group.

Casson, J. Tribute to Peter Slade, read at Peter Slade’s funeral, June 30, 2004.

Cockerham, W. C. (2000). Sociology of mental disorder. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon Books.

Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. San Diego: Harcourt, Inc.

Finneran, L. (1999). Beginnings: Letters to and from Gert. Dramascope. (19), 2, 1, 18-20.

Gordon, R. (1999). Beginnings: Cell Block Theatre. Dramascope. (19), 1, 1, 13, 26.

Harrison, J. E. (1913). Ancient art and ritual. Bath, England: Moonraker Press.

Hecht, S. J. (1991). Edith de Nancrede at Hull House: Theatre programs for youth.Youth Theatre Journal. (6), 1, 3-10.

Jackson, S. (2001). Lines of activity: Performance, historiography, Hull-House domesticity. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Jones, P. (1996). Drama as therapy: Theatre as living. London: Routledge.

Landy, R. (1997). Drama therapy – The state of the art. The Arts in Psychotherapy. (24), 1, 5-15.

Lewis P. & Johnson D. R. (Eds.). (2000). Current approaches in drama therapy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Lewis-Williams, D. (2002). The mind in the cave: Consciousness and the origins of art. London: Thames & Hudson.

Mithen, S. (1996). The prehistory of the mind: The cognitive origins of art, religion and science. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd.

Pfeiffer, J.E. (1982). The creative explosion: An inquiry into the origins of art and religion. New York: Harper & Row.

Philips, M. E. (1996). The use of drama and puppetry in occupational therapy during the 1920’s and 1930’s. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy (50), 3, 229- 233.

Reiter, S. (1996). Honoring Gert Schattner. Dramascope (14), 1, 1, 3.

Schattner, G. & Courtney, R. (1981). Drama in therapy, Volume One: Children, NY: Drama Book Specialists.

Slade, P. (1954). Child drama. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Slade, P. (1959). Dramatherapy as an aid to becoming a person. Pamphlet, Guild of Pastoral Psychology.

Spolin, V. (1963). Improvisation for the theatre. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.

Stanislavsky, C. (1936). An actor prepares. New York: Theatre Arts Books.

Way, B. (1967). Development through drama. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.

Whitaker, R. (2001). Mad in America: Bad science, bad medicine, and the enduring mistreatment of the mentally ill. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.